Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the Residence Act approved the creation of a capital district as permitted by the U.S. Constitution. The District is under the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States Congress and is therefore not a part of any U.S. state.
The states of Maryland and Virginia donated land along the Potomac River to form the federal district; however, Congress returned the Virginia portion in 1846. The City of Washington, located east of the preexisting port of Georgetown, was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. Congress consolidated the whole District under a single municipal government in 1871. The city and the U.S. state of Washington, which is on the country's Pacific coast, were both named in honor of George Washington.
Washington, D.C., had an estimated population of 617,996 in 2011, the 25th most populous place in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's population to over one million during the workweek. The Washington Metropolitan Area, of which the District is a part, has a population of nearly 5.6 million, the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the country.
The centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress, President, and Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups, and professional associations.
A locally elected mayor and 13-member city council have governed the District since 1973; however, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D.C. residents therefore have less self-governance than residents of U.S. states. The District has a non-voting, at-large Congressional delegate, but no senators. The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961, grants the District three electoral votes in presidential elections.
The District has a total area of 68.3 square miles (177 km2), of which 61.4 square miles (159 km2) is land and 6.9 square miles (18 km2) (10.16%) is water. It is no longer 100 square miles (260 km2) due to the retrocession of the southern portion of the District back to the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1846. The city is therefore surrounded by the states of Maryland to the southeast, northeast, and northwest and Virginia to the southwest.
Washington has three major natural flowing streams: the Potomac River and its tributaries the Anacostia River and Rock Creek. Tiber Creek, a natural watercourse that once passed through the National Mall, was fully enclosed underground during the 1870s. The creek also formed a portion of the now-filled Washington City Canal, which allowed passage through the city to the Anacostia River from 1815 until the 1850s. The present Chesapeake and Ohio Canal starts in Georgetown and was used during the 19th century to bypass the Great Falls of the Potomac River, located upstream (northwest) of Washington.
The highest natural elevation in the District of Columbia is 409 feet (125 m) above sea level at Fort Reno Park in northwest Washington. The lowest point is sea level at the Potomac River. The geographic center of Washington is near the intersection of 4th and L Streets NW. Contrary to the urban legend, Washington was not built on a reclaimed swamp, but wetlands did cover areas along the water. The United States government owns about 23% of the land in the District; lower than the percentage of federal lands in 12 states.
The District has 7,464 acres of parkland, about 19% of the city's total area and the second-highest percentage among high-density U.S. cities. The large percentage of city land dedicated to park areas contributes to a high urban tree canopy coverage of 35%. The National Park Service manages most of the city's parkland, including Rock Creek Park, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, the National Mall and Constitution Gardens, Theodore Roosevelt Island, Columbia Island, Fort Dupont Park, Meridian Hill Park, Kenilworth Park and Aquatic Gardens, and Anacostia Park. The only significant area of natural habitat not managed by the National Park Service is the U.S. National Arboretum, which is operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
An Algonquian-speaking people known as the Nacotchtank inhabited the area around the Anacostia River when the first Europeans arrived in the 17th century. However, the Nacotchtank people had largely relocated from the area by the early 18th century.
In his "Federalist No. 43", published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety. Five years earlier, in an event known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. The Pennsylvania government refused requests to forcibly disperse the protesters, which emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security.
Article One, Section Eight of the United States Constitution therefore permits the establishment of a "District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States." However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what later became known as the Compromise of 1790, Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the Southern United States.
On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16. Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles (16 km) on each side, totaling 100 square miles (260 km2).
Two preexisting settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, Maryland founded in 1751, and the city of Alexandria, Virginia, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing.
A new "federal city" was then constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of the established settlement at Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners charged with overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington. The federal district was named Columbia, which was a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800.
Shortly after arriving in the new capital, Congress passed the Organic Act of 1801, which officially organized the District of Columbia and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal government. Further, the unincorporated area within the District was organized into two counties: the County of Washington to the east of the Potomac and the County of Alexandria to the west. After the passage of this Act, citizens located in the District were no longer considered residents of Maryland or Virginia, which therefore ended their representation in Congress.
On August 24–25, 1814, in a raid known as the Burning of Washington, British forces invaded the capital during the War of 1812, following the Battle of York. The Capitol, Treasury, and White House were burned and gutted during the attack. Most government buildings were quickly repaired, but the Capitol, which was at the time largely under construction, was not completed in its current form until 1868.
In the 1830s, the District's southern territory of Alexandria went into economic decline partly due to neglect by Congress. Alexandria was a major market in the American slave trade and residents feared that abolitionists in Congress would end slavery in the District, further depressing the economy. As a result, Alexandrians petitioned Virginia to take back the land it had donated to form the District; a process known as retrocession.
The state legislature voted in February 1846 to accept the return of Alexandria and on July 9, 1846, Congress agreed to return all the territory that had been ceded by Virginia. Therefore, the District's current area consists only of land donated by Maryland. Confirming the fears of pro-slavery Alexandrians, the Compromise of 1850 outlawed the slave trade in the District, though not slavery itself.
The outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 led to notable growth in the District's population due to the expansion of the federal government and a large influx of freed slaves. President Abraham Lincoln signed the Compensated Emancipation Act in 1862, which ended slavery in the District of Columbia and freed about 3,100 enslaved persons, nine months prior to the Emancipation Proclamation. In 1868, Congress granted male African American residents of the District the right to vote in municipal elections.
By 1870, the District's population had grown 75% from the previous census to nearly 132,000 residents. Despite the city's growth, Washington still had dirt roads and lacked basic sanitation. The situation was so bad that some members of Congress suggested moving the capital further west, but President Ulysses S. Grant refused to consider such a proposal.
Congress passed the Organic Act of 1871, which repealed the individual charters of the cities of Washington and Georgetown, and a created a new territorial government for the whole District of Columbia. President Grant appointed Alexander Robey Shepherd to the new position of governor in 1873. Shepherd authorized large-scale municipal projects, which greatly modernized the city. However, the governor spent three times the money that had been budgeted for capital improvements, which ultimately bankrupted the District. In 1874, Congress replaced the territorial government with an appointed three-member Board of Commissioners.
The city's first motorized streetcars began service in 1888 and spurred growth in areas of the District beyond the City of Washington's original boundaries. The City of Washington formally annexed Georgetown in 1895, which until then had maintained a nominal separate identity. Washington became the first city to undergo city-wide urban renewal to enhance public spaces during the nation's "City Beautiful movement" in the early 1900s. Washington's city plan was expanded throughout the District in the following decades, forming new neighborhoods. As a result, the entire city eventually took the name Washington, D.C.
Increased federal spending as a result of New Deal legislation in the 1930s led to the construction of new government buildings, memorials, and museums in Washington. World War II further increased government activity, adding to the number of federal employees in the capital; by 1950, the District's population reached its peak of 802,178 residents. The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1961, granting the District three votes in the Electoral College for the election of President and Vice President, but still no voting representation in Congress.
After the assassination of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., on April 4, 1968, riots broke out in the District, primarily in the U Street, 14th Street, 7th Street, and H Street corridors, centers of black residential and commercial areas. The riots raged for three days until over 13,600 federal troops managed to stop the violence. Many stores and other buildings were burned; rebuilding was not complete until the late 1990s.
In 1973, Congress enacted the District of Columbia Home Rule Act, providing for an elected mayor and city council for the District. In 1975, Walter Washington became the first elected and first black mayor of the District.
On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked American Airlines Flight 77 and deliberately crashed the plane into the Pentagon in nearby Arlington, Virginia. United Airlines Flight 93, believed to be destined for Washington, D.C., crashed in Pennsylvania when passengers tried to recover control of the plane from hijackers.
Culture and Arts:
The National Mall is a large, open park in downtown Washington between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol. Given its prominence, the mall is often the location of political protests, concerts, festivals, and presidential inaugurations. The Washington Monument and the Jefferson Pier are near the center of the mall, south of the White House. Also on the mall are the National World War II Memorial at the east end of the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool, the Korean War Veterans Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.
Directly south of the mall, the Tidal Basin features rows of Japanese cherry blossom trees that originated as gifts from the nation of Japan. The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, George Mason Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial, and the District of Columbia War Memorial are around the Tidal Basin.
The National Archives houses thousands of documents important to American history including the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Located in three buildings on Capitol Hill, the Library of Congress is the largest library complex in the world with a collection of over 147 million books, manuscripts, and other materials. The United States Supreme Court Building was completed in 1935; before then, the court held sessions in the Old Senate Chamber of the Capitol.
The Smithsonian Institution is an educational foundation chartered by Congress in 1846 that maintains most of the nation's official museums and galleries in Washington, D.C. The U.S. government partially funds the Smithsonian, thus making its collections open to the public free of charge. The most visited of the Smithsonian museums in 2010 was the National Air and Space Museum on the National Mall. Other Smithsonian Institution museums and galleries on the mall are: the National Museum of Natural History; the National Museum of African Art; the National Museum of American History; the National Museum of the American Indian; the Sackler and Freer galleries, which both focus on Asian art and culture; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden; the Arts and Industries Building; the S. Dillon Ripley Center; and the Smithsonian Institution Building (also known as "The Castle"), which serves as the institution's headquarters.
The Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery are in the same building, the Donald W. Reynolds Center, near Washington's Chinatown. The Reynolds Center is also known as the Old Patent Office Building. The Renwick Gallery is officially part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum but is in a separate building near the White House. Other Smithsonian museums and galleries include: the Anacostia Community Museum in Southeast Washington; the National Postal Museum near Union Station; and the National Zoo in Woodley Park.
The National Gallery of Art, on the National Mall near the Capitol, features works of American and European art. The gallery and its collections are owned by the U.S. government but are not a part of the Smithsonian Institution. The National Building Museum, which occupies the former Pension Building near Judiciary Square, was chartered by Congress as a private institution to host exhibits on architecture, urban planning, and design.
There are many private art museums in the District of Columbia, which house major collections and exhibits open to the public such as the National Museum of Women in the Arts; the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the largest private museum in Washington; and The Phillips Collection in Dupont Circle, the first museum of modern art in the United States. Other private museums in Washington include the Newseum, the O Street Museum Foundation, the International Spy Museum, the National Geographic Society Museum, and the Marian Koshland Science Museum. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum near the National Mall maintains exhibits, documentation, and artifacts related to the Holocaust.
Washington, D.C., is a national center for the arts. The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is home to the National Symphony Orchestra, the Washington National Opera, and the Washington Ballet. The Kennedy Center Honors are awarded each year to those in the performing arts who have contributed greatly to the cultural life of the United States. Other prominent institutions such as the National Theatre, the Warner Theatre, and DAR Constitution Hall host live performances from around the country. The historic Ford's Theatre, site of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, continues to operate as a functioning performance space as well as museum.
The Marine Barracks near Capitol Hill houses the United States Marine Band; founded in 1798, it is the country's oldest professional musical organization. American march composer and Washington-native John Philip Sousa led the Marine Band from 1880 until 1892. Founded in 1925, the United States Navy Band has its headquarters at the Washington Navy Yard and performs at official events and public concerts around the city.
Washington has a strong local theater tradition. Founded in 1950, Arena Stage achieved national attention and spurred growth in the city's independent theater movement. In 2010, Arena Stage opened its newly renovated home in Southwest D.C., which has become a centerpiece of the city's emerging waterfront area. Organizations such as the Shakespeare Theatre Company and Woolly Mammoth Theatre Company in Penn Quarter, as well as the Studio Theatre and the Source Theatre on 14th Street NW, feature classical and new American plays. The GALA Hispanic Theatre, now housed in the historic Tivoli Theatre in Columbia Heights, was founded in 1976 and is a National Center for the Latino Performing Arts.
The U Street Corridor in Northwest D.C., known as "Washington's Black Broadway", is home to institutions like Bohemian Caverns and the Lincoln Theatre, which hosted music legends such as Washington-native Duke Ellington, John Coltrane, and Miles Davis. Other jazz venues feature modern blues, such as Madam's Organ in Adams Morgan and Blues Alley in Georgetown. Washington has its own native music genre called go-go; a post-funk, percussion-driven flavor of R&B that blends live sets with relentless dance rhythms. The most accomplished practitioner was D.C. band leader Chuck Brown, who brought go-go to the brink of national recognition with his 1979 LP Bustin' Loose.
The District is an important center for indie culture and music in the United States. The label Dischord Records, formed by Ian MacKaye, was one of the most crucial independent labels in the genesis of 1980s punk and eventually indie rock in the 1990s. Washington's indie label history includes TeenBeat, Simple Machines, and ESL Music among others. Modern alternative and indie music venues like The Black Cat and the 9:30 Club near U Street bring popular acts to smaller more-intimate spaces.
Washington, D.C., is a planned city. In 1791, President Washington commissioned Pierre (Peter) Charles L’Enfant to design the new capital. A French-born architect and city planner, L'Enfant first arrived in the colonies as a military engineer during the American Revolutionary War. The L'Enfant Plan for Washington featured broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles, providing room for open space and landscaping. He based his design on plans of cities such as Paris, Amsterdam, Karlsruhe, and Milan brought from Europe by Thomas Jefferson in 1788. L'Enfant's design also envisioned a garden-lined "grand avenue" approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) in length and 400 feet (120 m) wide in the area that is now the National Mall.
In March 1792, President Washington dismissed L'Enfant due to his insistence on micromanaging the city's planning, which had resulted in conflicts with the three commissioners appointed to supervise the capital's construction. Andrew Ellicott, who had worked with L'Enfant surveying the city, was then tasked with completing the design. Though Ellicott made revisions to the original plans, including changes to some street patterns, L'Enfant is still credited with the overall design of the city.
By the start of the 20th century, L'Enfant's vision of a capital with open parks and grand national monuments had become marred by slums and randomly placed buildings, including a railroad station on the National Mall. In 1900, Congress formed a joint committee, headed by Senator James McMillan, charged with beautifying Washington's ceremonial core. What became known as the McMillan Plan was finalized in 1901. It included the re-landscaping of the Capitol grounds and the Mall, constructing new federal buildings and monuments, clearing slums, and establishing a new citywide park system. Architects recruited by the committee kept much of the city's original layout, and their work is thought to have largely preserved L'Enfant's intended design.
By law, Washington's skyline is low and sprawling. The first building height restrictions in D.C. were put in place following the construction of the twelve-story Cairo Apartment Building in 1894. The Heights of Buildings Act of 1910 amended the restrictions to allow buildings that are no taller than the width of the adjacent street, plus 20 feet (6.1 m). Despite popular belief, no law has ever limited buildings to the height of the United States Capitol or the 555-foot (169 m) Washington Monument, which remains the District's tallest structure. City leaders have criticized the height restriction as a primary reason why the District has limited affordable housing and traffic problems caused by urban sprawl.
The District is divided into four quadrants of unequal area: Northwest (NW), Northeast (NE), Southeast (SE), and Southwest (SW). The axes bounding the quadrants radiate from the U.S. Capitol building. All road names include the quadrant abbreviation to indicate their location, and house numbers are assigned based on the approximate number of blocks away from the Capitol. In most of the city, the streets are set out in a grid pattern with east–west streets named with letters (e.g., C Street SW) and north–south streets with numbers (e.g., 4th Street NW).
The City of Washington was bordered by Boundary Street to the north (renamed Florida Avenue in 1890), Rock Creek to the west, and the Anacostia River to the east. Washington's street grid was extended, where possible, throughout the District starting in 1888. Georgetown's streets were renamed in 1895. Some streets are particularly noteworthy, such as Pennsylvania Avenue, which connects the White House to the U.S. Capitol and K Street, which houses the offices of many lobbying groups. Washington hosts 297 foreign embassies and related buildings, many of which are on a section of Massachusetts Avenue informally known as Embassy Row.
The architecture of Washington varies greatly. Six of the top 10 buildings in the American Institute of Architects' 2007 ranking of "America's Favorite Architecture" are in the District of Columbia: the White House; the Washington National Cathedral; the Thomas Jefferson Memorial; the United States Capitol; the Lincoln Memorial; and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The neoclassical, Georgian, gothic, and modern architectural styles are all reflected among those six structures and many other prominent edifices in Washington. Notable exceptions include buildings constructed in the French Second Empire style such as the Eisenhower Executive Office Building.
Outside downtown Washington, architectural styles are even more varied. Historic buildings are designed primarily in the Queen Anne, Châteauesque, Richardsonian Romanesque, Georgian revival, Beaux-Arts, and a variety of Victorian styles. Rowhouses are especially prominent in areas developed after the Civil War and typically follow Federalist and late Victorian designs. Since Georgetown was established before the city of Washington, the neighborhood features the District's oldest architecture. Georgetown's Old Stone House was built in 1765, making it the oldest-standing original building in the city. The majority of current homes in the neighborhood, however, were not built until the 1870s and reflect late Victorian designs of the period. Founded in 1789, Georgetown University is more distinct from the neighborhood and features a mix of Romanesque and Gothic Revival architecture. The Ronald Reagan Building is the largest building in the District with a total area of approximately 3.1 million square feet (288,000 m2).
Washington is one of 12 cities in the United States with teams from all four major professional men's sports and is home to one major professional women's team. The Washington Wizards (National Basketball Association), the Washington Capitals (National Hockey League), and the Washington Mystics (Women's National Basketball Association), play at the Verizon Center in Chinatown. Nationals Park, which opened in Southeast D.C. in 2008, is home to the Washington Nationals (Major League Baseball). D.C. United (Major League Soccer) plays at RFK Stadium. The Washington Redskins (National Football League) play at nearby FedExField in Landover, Maryland.
Current D.C. teams have won a combined ten professional league championships: the Washington Redskins has won five; D.C. United has won four (the most in MLS history); and the Washington Wizards (then the Washington Bullets) has won a single championship.
Other professional and semi-professional teams in Washington include: the Washington Kastles (World TeamTennis); the Washington D.C. Slayers (American National Rugby League); the Baltimore Washington Eagles (USAFL); the D.C. Divas (Independent Women's Football League); and the Potomac Athletic Club RFC (Rugby Super League). The William H.G. FitzGerald Tennis Center in Rock Creek Park hosts the Legg Mason Tennis Classic. Washington is also home to two major annual marathon races: the Marine Corps Marathon, which is held every autumn, and the Rock 'n' Roll USA Marathon held in the spring. The Marine Corps Marathon began in 1976 and is sometimes called "The People's Marathon" because it is the largest marathon that does not offer prize money to participants.
The District's four NCAA Division I teams have a broad following. The Georgetown Hoyas men's basketball team is the most notable and also plays at the Verizon Center. Since 2008, the District has hosted an annual college football bowl game at RFK Stadium, now called the Military Bowl. The D.C. area is home to one regional sports television network, Comcast SportsNet (CSN), based in Bethesda, Maryland.
Washington, D.C., is a prominent center for national and international media. The Washington Post, founded in 1877, is the oldest and most-read local daily newspaper in Washington. It is probably most notable for its coverage of national and international politics and for exposing the Watergate Scandal. "The Post", as it is popularly called, had the sixth-highest print circulation of all news dailies in the country in 2010.
The Washington Metropolitan Area is the ninth-largest television media market in the U.S. with two million homes (approximately 2% of the U.S. population). Several media companies and cable television channels have their headquarters in the area, including C-SPAN; Black Entertainment Television (BET); Radio One; the National Geographic Channel; Smithsonian Networks; National Public Radio (NPR); Travel Channel (in Chevy Chase, Maryland); Discovery Communications (in Silver Spring, Maryland); and the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) (in Arlington, Virginia). The headquarters of Voice of America, the U.S. government's international news service, is near the Capitol in Southwest Washington.
Article One, Section Eight of the United States Constitution grants the U.S. Congress "exclusive jurisdiction" over the city. The District did not have an elected municipal government until the passage of the 1973 Home Rule Act. The Act devolved certain Congressional powers to a local government administered by an elected mayor, currently Vincent C. Gray, and the thirteen-member Council of the District of Columbia. However, Congress retains the right to review and overturn laws created by the council and intervene in local affairs.
Each of the city's eight wards elects a single member of the council and four at-large members represent the District as a whole. The council chair is also elected at-large. There are 37 Advisory Neighborhood Commissions (ANCs) elected by small neighborhood districts. ANCs traditionally wield a great deal of influence and the city government routinely takes their suggestions into careful consideration.
The mayor and council set local taxes and a budget, which must be approved by Congress. The Home Rule Act prohibits the District from imposing a commuter tax on non-residents who make up over 60% of the city's workforce. In addition, over 50% of property in the District is also exempt from taxation. The Government Accountability Office and other organizations have estimated that these revenue restrictions create a structural deficit in the city's budget of anywhere between $470 million and over $1 billion per year. While Congress typically provides larger grants to the District for federal programs such as Medicaid and the local justice system, analysts claim that the payments do not resolve the imbalance.
The District's local justice system is centered on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia and the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, whose judges are appointed by the President. The District's local courts, though operated by the federal government, are separate from the United States District Court for the District of Columbia and the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, which only hear cases regarding federal law. The United States Attorney for the District of Columbia is also appointed by the President and is responsible for prosecuting both federal and local crimes. In addition to the District's own Metropolitan Police Department, many federal law enforcement agencies have jurisdiction in the city as well; most visibly the U.S. Park Police, founded in 1791.
The city's local government, particularly during the mayoralty of Marion Barry, was criticized for mismanagement and waste. During his administration in 1989, The Washington Monthly magazine claimed that the District had "the worst city government in America." Barry was elected mayor in 1978, serving three successive four-year terms, followed by a fourth term starting in 1995. That year, Congress created the District of Columbia Financial Control Board to oversee all municipal spending and rehabilitate the city government. Mayor Anthony Williams won election in 1998. His administration oversaw a period of greater prosperity, urban renewal, and budget surpluses. The District regained control over its finances in 2001 and the oversight board's operations were suspended.
Washington, D.C., observes all federal holidays. The District also celebrates Emancipation Day on April 16, which commemorates the signing of the Compensated Emancipation Act by President Abraham Lincoln, ending slavery in the District of Columbia in 1862.
Residents of the District of Columbia have no voting representation in Congress. They are represented in the House of Representatives by a non-voting delegate, currently Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-D.C. At-Large), who may sit on committees, participate in debate, and introduce legislation, but cannot vote on the House floor. The District has no representation in the United States Senate. Unlike residents of U.S. territories such as Puerto Rico or Guam, which also have non-voting delegates, D.C. residents are subject to all U.S. federal taxes. In the financial year 2007, D.C. residents and businesses paid $20.4 billion in federal taxes; more than the taxes collected from 19 states and the highest federal taxes per capita.
A 2005 poll found that 78% of Americans did not know that residents of the District of Columbia have less representation in Congress than residents of the 50 states. Efforts to raise awareness about the issue have included campaigns by grassroots organizations and the featuring of the city's unofficial motto, "Taxation Without Representation", on D.C. vehicle license plates. There is evidence of nationwide approval for DC voting rights; various polls indicate that 61 to 82% of Americans believe that D.C. should have voting representation in Congress. Despite public support, attempts to grant the District voting representation, including the D.C. statehood movement and the proposed District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment, have been unsuccessful.
Opponents of D.C. voting rights propose that the Founding Fathers never intended for District residents to have a vote in Congress since the Constitution makes clear that representation must come from the states. Those opposed to making D.C. a state claim that such a move would destroy the notion of a separate national capital and that statehood would unfairly grant Senate representation to a single city.
District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) operates the city's 123 public schools. The number of students in DCPS steadily decreased for 39 years until 2009. In the 2010–11 school year, 46,191 students were enrolled in the public school system. DCPS has one of the highest-cost yet lowest-performing school systems in the country, both in terms of infrastructure and student achievement. Mayor Adrian Fenty's administration made sweeping changes to the system by closing schools, replacing teachers, firing principals, and using private education firms to aid curriculum development.
The District of Columbia Public Charter School Board monitors the 52 public charter schools in the city. Due to the perceived problems with the traditional public school system, enrollment in public charter schools has steadily increased. As of fall 2010, D.C. charter schools had a total enrollment of about 32,000, a 9% increase from the prior year. The District is also home to 92 private schools, which enrolled approximately 18,000 students in 2008. The District of Columbia Public Library operates 25 neighborhood locations including the landmark Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library.
Private universities include American University (AU), the Catholic University of America (CUA), Gallaudet University, George Washington University (GW), Georgetown University (GU), Howard University, and the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). The Corcoran College of Art and Design provides specialized arts instruction and other higher-education institutions offer continuing, distance and adult education. The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) is a public university providing undergraduate and graduate education. The District is known for its medical research institutions such as Washington Hospital Center and the Children's National Medical Center, as well as the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. In addition, the city is home to three medical schools and associated teaching hospitals at George Washington, Georgetown, and Howard universities.
According to a 2010 study, Washington-area commuters spent 70 hours a year in traffic delays, which tied with Chicago for having the nation's worst road congestion. However, 37% of Washington-area commuters take public transportation to work, the second-highest rate in the country. An additional 12% of D.C. commuters walked to work, 6% carpooled, and 3% traveled by bicycle in 2010. A 2011 study by Walk Score found that Washington was the seventh-most walkable city in the country with 80% of residents living in neighborhoods that are not car dependent.
An extensive network of streets, parkways, and arterial avenues forms the core of the District's surface transportation infrastructure. Due to protests by local residents during the freeway revolts of the 1960s, much of the proposed interstate highway system through the middle of Washington was never built. Interstate 95, the nation's major east coast highway, therefore bends around the District to form the eastern portion of the Capital Beltway. The funds that had been dedicated for additional highway construction were instead redirected to the region's public transportation infrastructure. The interstate highways that do continue into Washington, including Interstate 66 and Interstate 395, both terminate shortly after entering the city.
The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) operates the Washington Metro, the city's rapid transit system, as well as Metrobus. Both systems serve the District and its suburbs. Metro opened on March 27, 1976 and presently consists of 86 stations and 106.3 miles (171.1 km) of track. With an average of about one million trips each weekday, Metro is the second-busiest rapid transit system in the country. Metrobus serves over 400,000 riders each weekday, making it the nation's sixth-largest bus system. The city also operates its own DC Circulator bus system, which connects commercial areas within central Washington.
Union Station is the city's main train station and services approximately 70,000 people each day. It is Amtrak's second-busiest station with 4.6 million passengers annually and is the southern terminus for the Northeast Corridor and Acela Express routes. Maryland's MARC and Virginia's VRE commuter trains and the Metrorail Red Line also provide service into Union Station. Following renovations in 2011, Union Station became Washington's primary intercity bus transit center.
Three major airports serve the District. Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport is across from downtown Washington in Arlington, Virginia and has its own Metrorail station. Given its proximity to the city, Reagan National has extra security precautions required by the Washington Air Defense Identification Zone. Major international flights arrive and depart from Washington Dulles International Airport, 26.3 miles (42.3 km) west of the District in Fairfax and Loudoun counties in Virginia. Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport is 31.7 miles (51.0 km) northeast of the District in Anne Arundel County, Maryland.
An expected 32% increase in transit usage within the District by 2030 has spurred construction of a new DC Streetcar system to interconnect the city's neighborhoods. Construction has also started on an additional Metro line that will connect Washington to Dulles airport. The District and adjacent Arlington County launched Capital Bikeshare in September 2010; it is currently one of the largest bicycle sharing systems in the country with over 1,500 bicycles and 165 stations. Marked bicycle lanes currently exist on 48 miles (77 km) of streets and the city plans to further expand the network.
Washington has a growing, diversified economy with an increasing percentage of professional and business service jobs. The gross state product of the District in 2010 was $103.3 billion, which would rank it No. 34 compared to the 50 U.S. states. The gross product of the Washington Metropolitan Area was $425 billion in 2010, making it the fourth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States. As of June 2011, the Washington Metropolitan Area had an unemployment rate of 6.2%; the second-lowest rate among the 49 largest metro areas in the nation. The District of Columbia itself had an unemployment rate of 9.8% during the same time period.
In 2012, the federal government accounted for about 29% of the jobs in Washington, D.C. This is thought to immunize Washington to national economic downturns because the federal government continues operations even during recessions. Many organizations such as law firms, independent contractors (both defense and civilian), non-profit organizations, lobbying firms, trade unions, industry trade groups, and professional associations have their headquarters in or near D.C. to be close to the federal government. Washington also hosts nearly 200 foreign embassies and international organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization of American States, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Pan American Health Organization. In 2008, the foreign diplomatic corps in Washington employed about 10,000 people and contributed an estimated $400 million annually to the local economy.
The District has growing industries not directly related to government, especially in the areas of education, finance, public policy, and scientific research. Georgetown University, George Washington University, Washington Hospital Center, Children's National Medical Center and Howard University are the top five non-government-related employers in the city as of 2009. According to statistics compiled in 2011, four of the largest 500 companies in the country were headquartered in the District.
Washington became the leader in foreign real estate investment in 2009, ahead of both London and New York City, in a survey of the top 200 global development companies. In 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked D.C. among the top ten areas in the nation favorable to business expansion. Despite the national economic crisis and housing price downturn, Washington ranked second on the Forbes list of the best long-term housing markets in the country.
Washington is in the humid subtropical climate zone and exhibits four distinct seasons. Its climate is typical of Mid-Atlantic U.S. areas removed from bodies of water. The District is in plant hardiness zone 8a near downtown, and zone 7b elsewhere in the city, indicating a temperate climate.
Spring and fall are warm, while winter is cool with annual snowfall averaging 15.6 inches (40 cm). Winter temperatures average around 38 °F (3.3 °C) from mid-December to mid-February. Summers are hot and humid with a July daily average of 79.2 °F (26.2 °C) and average daily relative humidity around 66%, which can cause medium to moderate personal discomfort. The combination of heat and humidity in the summer brings very frequent thunderstorms, some of which occasionally produce tornadoes in the area.
Blizzards affect Washington on average once every four to six years. The most violent storms are called "nor'easters", which often affect large sections of the U.S. East Coast. Hurricanes (or their remnants) occasionally track through the area in late summer and early fall, but are often weak by the time they reach Washington, partly due to the city's inland location. Flooding of the Potomac River, however, caused by a combination of high tide, storm surge, and runoff, has been known to cause extensive property damage in Georgetown.
The highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on July 20, 1930, and August 6, 1918, while the lowest recorded temperature was −15 °F (−26 °C) on February 11, 1899, during the Great Blizzard of 1899. During a typical year, the city averages about 37 days at or above 90 °F (32.2 °C) and 64 nights at or below freezing.
Visiting in District of Columbia:
If you fly to Washington, D.C. on Southwest or AirTran, you’ll probably land at Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI). It takes 45 minutes to an hour to drive from the airport to Washington, D.C., so if you’re not renting a car the cheapest option for getting into town is probably the MARC commuter train (forty minutes to an hour to Union Station, trains every half hour). The fastest option will probably be Amtrak (half an hour to Union Station, trains every hour). If you are thinking about renting a car, check out their discounted rates. The Super Shuttle can also get you to downtown.
If you fly United, Jet Blue, or American, your flight is probably bound for Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD). There is no rail service to Dulles, so your options for getting to downtown Washington, D.C. are pretty much limited to the Super Shuttle, a taxi (35 to 50 minutes, depending on traffic, for between $50 and $60) or the Washington Flyer Coach Service bus, which will drive you as far as the West Falls Church Metro Station, in about 20 to 30 minutes. Or you can rent a car.
The closest in of Washington, D.C.’s airports is Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA). That’s your likely destination if you fly U.S. Airways. The U.S. Airways Shuttle and the Delta Shuttle also land there. You can get directly on the Metro from National, or you can take the Super Shuttle or rent a car.
As air travel becomes more of a hassle, more visitors arrive in Washington, D.C. by Amtrak train, especially those coming from Philadelphia, New York, Boston, or one of the smaller cities in between. From Union Station you can get straight on the Metro or take a relatively quick cab ride to your hotel. Or you can hop on one of the tour buses run by Old Town Trolley, Gray Line, or Open Top Sightseeing.
Washington, DC has a great mode of public transportation in the Metro system, but sometimes you just want a car to get out and explore. If you are thinking about renting a car, check out their discounted rates.
Getting around downtown D.C. can be a breeze or it can be a confusing mess. Choose a hotel near the sites or near a Metro stop and you’ll be well on your way to a happy stay in Washington, DC.
The fastest and cheapest way to get most places in Washington, D.C. is by Metro, which starts running at 5 a.m. (7 a.m. on Saturday and Sunday) and stops at midnight (3 a.m. on Friday and Saturday nights). An interactive map of the Metro system is available here. You can also take a cab (now with metered fares) or buy a full-day ticket and hop on and off tour buses like those run by Old Town Trolley or Gray Line.
Washington, D.C. has one of the best public transportation systems in the country, so if you have the option, you’re usually better off taking the Metro to get where you need to go. Even if you’re coming from out of town, most Metro stations in the suburbs have lots or garages where you can leave your car all day. All Metro parking is free on weekends or holidays, and three stations even have lots where you can leave your car for up to 10 days. Check out WMATA’s site for details on your nearest station.
But let’s say you must drive into the city, for whatever reason. Then you basically have two options (assuming the business or attraction you visit doesn’t have its own garage): street parking or a pay garage.
If you choose to park on the street, you might be lucky enough to find a free spot, especially if you’re nowhere near a commercial area, but in most residential neighborhoods where those spaces exist, there is a strict two-hour time limit for non-residents. Usually those limits are in effect Monday through Friday, 7 a.m. to 8:30 p.m.
More likely you’ll find one of the city’s 17,000 metered spaces. In most areas these cost $0.75/hour from 7 a.m. to 6:30 p.m., Monday through Saturday.
Fortunately, you no longer have to lug around rolls of quarters to use meters in the district. While they all still accept coins, they also all accept credit cards. Or, for an additional $0.32 transaction fee you can use a mobile app and pay with your phone.
Unfortunately, most have a maximum time limit of two hours, so however you pay you will have to go outside and refill the meter periodically.
Most likely of all, if you drive into the city you’re going to end up paying to park in a garage. Most of these have steeply declining rates where you pay heavily for the first hour and then pay only about double that first hour amount to stay for the rest of the day. That means your best value is almost always to find one place and leave your car there all day.
Rates vary by neighborhood, but generally in neighborhoods with visitor attractions they hover between about $16 and about $22 for the full day. You’ll notice the same company names in multiple neighborhoods: Colonial, LAZ, Altman’s, Central. You can compare the prices on their websites, but the simplest one-stop way to find the best price is the Best Parking app, available for free for iPhone, Android, or Blackberry. You can search it by neighborhood, address, or attraction.
Even garages fill up, though, especially on parade or festival days. You really are better off on the Metro.
Guided tours are the best way to see Washington, D.C. The city has an incredible amount to offer, and a guided tour can show you things even locals don’t know about.
Join a Segway tour and zip around the National Mall on two wheels. Or go on a walking tour of Georgetown and learn about the ghost known to haunt its Victorian houses…and cemeteries.
Washington DC – Old Town Trolley: Named Washington’s Best Tour by Washingtonian Magazine. Discover the nation’s capitol during this two hour tour. See the best first and enjoy the stories of the men, women and events that shaped our nation. With well planned stops you can visit Georgetown, the Mall, the National Cathedral, Lincoln Memorial, the Smithsonian museums and much, much more!
Washington DC – Monuments by Moonlight: Washington DC’s spectacular monuments at night are not to be missed on this 2 1/2 hour fully narrated tour. With stops at the Iwo Jima Memorial, FDR Memorial, Lincoln Memorial, Vietnam Veteran and Korean War Memorials you will definitely want to bring your camera. Washington, D.C. is most beautiful after the sun sets.
Washington DC eTicket Center: Buy tickets online for the Old Town Trolley or Monuments by Moonlight as well as tickets to shows, museums, and sporting events.
Spirit Dinner Cruise - Quite simply, a Spirit dinner cruise is the perfect night out. A magical setting enhanced by dazzling city sights and harbor lights. An evening filled to the brim with wonderful cuisine, live music and dancing under a canopy of stars. For a party of two, a couple of couples, or a grand affair for up to 600 guests, this is the ultimate Washington experience.
Odyssey Dinner Cruise - Step aboard Odyssey and enjoy a two-or three-hour escape to the signature elegance and total entertainment experience only a true luxury cruising vessel can provide. Creative appetizers, entrees and desserts prepared fresh onboard, daily. Award-winning wines. Dancing to live music. And unmatched views of the nation’s greatest monuments drifting past your table. Explore and discover Washington’s most luxurious dining cruise ship!
American University Park, District of Columbia:
American University Park is a neighborhood of Washington, DC, named for the American University. AU Park, as it is often abbreviated, is situated against the Maryland border in the Northwest quadrant, bounded by Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Nebraska, and Western Avenues. Tenleytown and Friendship Heights lie to the east, Embassy Park to the southeast, and Spring Valley—the actual home of the university—to the southwest. Politically, it is part of Ward 3 and Advisory Neighborhood Commission 3E.
AU Park includes some of the greatest elevations in the city and is close to the District's highest point in neighboring Tenleytown at 429 feet (the city's lowest point, Potomac River is 1 ft. above sea level).
Developed in the 1920s by the WC and AN Miller Company, which also developed Spring Valley and Wesley Heights, the neighborhood consists almost entirely of single-family homes. A wide variety of architectural styles are present, and most homes have been modified or expanded since the 1930s. Although one of Washington's first tracts developed with the automobile in mind, the approximately 2700 homes are closely spaced, feature porches or stoops, and often lack driveways, which boosters say contributes to community spirit.
Friendship Park, often called Turtle Park, serves as a center for community activity. Neighborhood landmarks include American University's Washington College of Law, the Georgetown Day School, Bernard T. Janney Elementary School, the chancery of the diplomatic mission of Japan, and the former embassy of Sweden (which was relocated to the Georgetown waterfront in October 2006), and it was long popular among the diplomatic community. Affordable housing drew young families to AU Park starting in the early 1990s. It remains highly desirable but real estate values have more than doubled since then. Larger homes are now valued at over $1 million.
Anacostia, District of Columbia:
Anacostia is a historic neighborhood in Washington, D.C. Its historic downtown is located at the intersection of Good Hope Road and Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue. It is the most famous neighborhood in the Southeast quadrant of Washington, located east of the Anacostia River, after which the neighborhood is named. Like the other quadrants of Washington, D.C., Southeast encompasses a large number of named neighborhoods, of which Anacostia and Capitol Hill are the most well known. Anacostia includes all of the Anacostia Historic District that was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. Often the name Anacostia is incorrectly used to refer to the entire portion of the city that is southeast of the Anacostia River.
The name "Anacostia" comes from the anglicized name of a Nacochtank Native Americans settlement along the Anacostia River. Captain John Smith explored the area in 1608, traveling up the "Eastern Branch" -- later the Anacostia River -- mistaking it for the main body of the Potomac River, and met Anacostans.
The core of what is now the Anacostia historic district was incorporated in 1854 as Uniontown and was one of the first suburbs in the District of Columbia. It was designed to be financially available to Washington's working class, many of whom were employed across the river at the Navy Yard; its (then) location outside of and isolated from the city made its real estate inexpensive. The initial subdivision of 1854 carried restrictive covenants prohibiting the sale, rental or lease of property to anyone of African or Irish descent. Abolitionist Frederick Douglass, often called "the sage of Anacostia," bought Cedar Hill, the estate belonging to the developer of Uniontown, in 1877 and lived there until he died in 1895. The home is still maintained as a historical site in Anacostia.
During the Civil War, Anacostia was protected by a series of forts upon the hills southwest of the city. Following the conclusion of the war, the forts were dismantled and the land returned to its original owners.
Anacostia, always part of the District of Columbia, became a part of the city of Washington when the city and District became coterminous in 1878.
In 1932, during the Great Depression, unemployed World War I veterans from all across the country marched on Washington to demand immediate payment of a bonus promised to them. The event became known as the Bonus Army Conflict. Most of the Bonus Army camped on Anacostia Flats, a swampy, muddy area along the Anacostia River later reclaimed as Anacostia Park/Fairlawn Park. Fearing civil unrest, the President ordered the military to disperse the campers from Washington. The Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur dispersed them, but exceeded the orders of President Herbert Hoover by crossing the bridge to Anacostia and torching the veteran's encampment. MacArthur believed that the Bonus Army was composed of and led by Communists. George Patton and Dwight Eisenhower served under MacArthur during these events.
Anacostia's population remained predominantly European-American up until the late 1950s and early 1960's, with Whites comprising 87% of the population. During the 1960s, the Anacostia Freeway (I-295) was constructed. The highway imposed a barrier between the Anacostia neighborhood and the Anacostia River waterfront. Numerous public housing apartment complexes were also built in the neighborhood. With the flight of much of the middle class out of the neighborhood during the late 1950s and 1960's with the opportunity to move to newer housing in postwar suburbs, Anacostia's demographics changed dramatically as the neighborhood became predominantly African American. Later events with the rise of drugs and poverty adversely affected the area.
Shopping, dining, and entertainment facilities throughout greater Anacostia are limited, as development slowed with a decrease in income in the area. Residents often must travel to either the suburbs or downtown Washington for these services. Anacostia, however, does have a year-round ice skating rink at Fort Dupont Park; the city police boys' club; and a "tennis and learning center", combining sports with academic tutoring in Congress Heights.
In 2005, Building Bridges Across the River opened the 110,000-square-foot (10,000 m2) Town Hall Education Arts Recreation Campus (THEARC) which is home to eleven nonprofit organizations, all of which share the goal of helping children and adults reach their full potential. Free summer evening jazz concerts are also given weekly in Fort Dupont Park. The annual Martin Luther King Birthday Parade is a notable annual event along the Avenue bearing Dr. King's name. Starting in 2006 the annual parade date was changed from January to April. (Also see the separate article on Congress Heights). In January 2007 a new large supermarket opened to serve the neighborhood.
Anacostia downtown is located at the intersection of Good Hope Road and Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue. It is the most famous neighborhood in the Southeast quadrant of Washington, located east of the Anacostia River, after which the neighborhood is named.
As of the 2000 Census, Anacostia's population is 92% African-American, 5% Non-Hispanic White, and 3% other.
The Anacostia Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district. The historic district retains much of its mid-to-late 19th-century low-scale, working-class character, as is evident in its architecture.
In 1957, an Anacostia landmark, the World's Largest Chair, was installed at the corner of Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue and V Street, SE. The chair was installed by the Curtis Brothers Furniture Company and built by Bassett Furniture Manufacturing Co.,. In the summer of 2005, the "Big Chair" was removed for repairs, then returned in April 2006.
Notable facilities in the area include Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling (formerly Bolling Air Force Base and Naval Support Facility Anacostia).
Founded in 2000, the Anacostia Waterfront Initiative plans to revitalize a 45-acre (180,000 m2) piece of the Anacostia River waterfront to promote community and appreciation of one of the District of Columbia's greatest natural resources.
Plans include numerous parks restored of their natural wetlands and forests, canoe tie-ups, a playground, a four-acre 9/11 Memorial Grove, and an Environmental Education Center. The Center will engage visitors in learning about the history and use of the Anacostia River through a 9,000-square-foot (840 m2), two story complex topped by a green roof/nursery center with classrooms, labs and a multipurpose area beneath. Studios Architecture was chosen to be the Architect of the project, while the administrating agency will be the Anacostia Waterfront Corporation.
High crime rates, associated with drug trade, reached a peak in the 1990s. In 2005, 62 of the 195 homicides in Washington, D.C. occurred in the 7th District of the Metropolitan Police Department, which also includes the neighborhoods of Barry Farm, Naylor Gardens, and Washington Highlands. This figure is down from the 7th District's peak of 133 homicides in 1993.
The Washington Nationals professional baseball stadium is located on the North side of the Anacostia River in southeast Washington.
District of Columbia Public Schools operates public schools. Anacostia High School serves Anacostia. Ballou High School is in southern Anacostia. The area has a number of middle and elementary schools.
The Anacostia Museum, a branch of the Smithsonian Institution, was established in 1967 by S. Dillon Ripley, then-Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
The Honfleur Gallery, located near the corner of Martin Luther King Ave and Good Hope Road is a gallery showcasing nationally-known works alongside that of local artists. It also hosts a bi-monthly poetry series called Intersections, sponsored by the American Poetry Museum.
District of Columbia Public Library operates the Anacostia Interim Library.
Cedar Hill, the home of abolitionist Frederick Douglass, known as the "Lion of Anacostia", sits atop a hill overlooking the Anacostia neighborhood on W Street SE.
The neighborhood, served by the Anacostia Metro station, is a ten minute ride on Washington Metro's Green Line from downtown Washington; other metro stations on the Green and Orange lines serve other parts of Greater Anacostia.
Barnaby Woods, District of Columbia:
On November 4, 1934, Edward R. Carr headed up the Barnaby Woods Development Company, formed to develop the 23 acre tract in Chevy Chase, DC. Claude G. Johnson and M.B Swanson are also credited with the promotion and realization of this community. Thomas C. Jeffers, engineer and landscape architect of the National Capital Park & Planning Commission, was employed to lay out the subdivision.
A Post article read: Barnaby Woods, with its' shady paths, running brooks and flowery shrubbery offers a country home atmosphere with all the advantages of a location in the District. Just West of the Pinehurst Branch of Rock Creek Park, the comprehensive landscaping plan saved the original beauty of the projects location.
On June 1, 1935, the first group of five houses were completed. Post real estate ads showed several Barnaby Street properties selling between $11,900 to $12,900. Later in November 1935, two Van Hazen St. properties, built under the supervision of well known DC residential developer, C.R. Matheny, came on the market.
By Spring 1937, 70 homes had been constructed with 62 already sold." Careful architectural and social restrictions guarantee each home buyer in this community a sound investment".
Barnaby Woods is a neighborhood in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C., wedged between Rock Creek Park and Montgomery County, Maryland. It is bounded on the north by Aberfoyle Place, on the west by Western Avenue, on the south by Tennyson Street, and on the east by Oregon Avenue. Barnaby Woods is entirely residential, with no commercial zoning whatsoever, and the housing consists primarily of 1930s colonial homes on large parcels of land.
Barnaby Woods is in the 2nd Police district and is within Police Service Area (PSA) 201. Barnaby Woods residents are within the sending districts of Lafayette Elementary School, Deal Middle School and Wilson High School.
Barry Farm, District of Columbia:
Barry Farm is a small neighborhood in Southeast Washington, D.C., adjacent to St. Elizabeth's Hospital. It is today almost entirely occupied by public housing projects and has a reputation for violent crime, poverty, and neglect. The entire neighborhood of public housing is planned for a complete redevelopment from single-use, single-income (low) into a mixed-use, mixed-income neighborhood designed to complement its historic setting and location adjacent to the Anacostia Metro Station.
Barry Farm is located east of the Anacostia River and is bounded by the Southeast Freeway to the northwest, Suitland Parkway to the northeast and east, and St. Elizabeth's Hospital to the south. Also see article on Anacostia.
Also home to The Goodman League, named after community activist George Goodman (formerly known as Barry Farms Community Basketball League). League features current and former NBA players, college players, and participants from various communities. The league has been around since the mid-1970s.
Barry Farm's origins are quite literally explained by the neighborhood's name: the land was part of a farm owned by James Barry in the mid-19th century. In 1867, the Freedman's Bureau purchased the land from the Barry family and parceled it out as settlements for freed slaves.
Barry Farm has shrunk considerably in the 20th century. Although it was initially a large homestead, stretching all the way to 13th Street on the east, Poplar Point on the West, and the present-day Morris Road SE on the north. However, in 1876 the area between 13th Street, Sheridan Road, and Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue SE (then known as Nichols Avenue) was renamed Hillsdale; in approximately 1913, railroad tracks were built, cutting off Barry Farm from Poplar Point; and, in the early 1950s, the city built the Suitland Parkway, isolating the neighborhood between busy traffic arteries.
The Redevelopment Land Agency, on behalf of the city of Washington, purchased all land west of Wade Road SE in 1954 and built a single, large, public-housing community there that still stands today. Several apartment buildings also line Martin Luther King Jr. Ave. Only a few old frame houses, mostly just at the edge of the thicket that separates Barry Farm from St. Elizabeth's, are the remnants of the original Freedman's community.
While similar, the neighborhood name is coincidental, and not a reference to the former mayor of Washington, DC, Marion Barry.
Bellevue, District of Columbia:
Bellevue is a residential neighborhood in far SW Washington, DC. It is bounded by South Capitol Street to the north and east, Joliet and First Streets to the south, and the Potomac River to the west. A portion of Joint Base Anacostia Bolling, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Blue Plains wastewater treatment plant (DC Water), Specialty Hospital of Washington-Hadley, the Metropolitan Police Academy, Washington Firefighters Training Center, a federal Job Corps center, and the Architect of the Capitol's Botanic Garden's production facility (greenhouse) are located in Bellevue. Mezzo soprano opera singer Denyce Graves and country singer Roy Clark hail from the Bellevue neighborhood.
Old city maps and land permit records going back to 1880s designated this area of SW as labeled "Bell View"/"Bellevue"--"beautiful view" in French. Most residential development occurred in the 1950s and 1960s. Once a thriving commercial hub, Bellevue declined during the mass exodus of the middle class in the 1980s. It is on the cusp of revitalization. The most recent addition to the neighborhood is the $15M world class, David Adjaye designed edifice to replace the former Washington Highlands Library. The area surrounding the library was undeveloped farm land when Washington Highlands was built in 1959. The DC Board of Library Trustees voted in July 2011 to rename the new building Bellevue after the neighborhood where it is properly located. Over $150M in commercial mixed-use development is in the pipeline along South Capitol and Atlantic Streets, the heart of the Bellevue Business District.
Berkeley, District of Columbia:
Berkley is a neighborhood in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C. It is sometimes referred to as Foxhall Crescents, after a housing development built within the neighborhood.
Berkley is bounded by Wesley Heights Park to the north, MacArthur Boulevard to the southwest, Battery Kemble Park to the west, and 44th Street and Foxhall Road to the east. Beyond the line formed by 44th and Foxhall lies Archbold Glover Park, meaning that Berkley is surrounded on three sides by parkland. Its fourth side is adjacent to two neighborhoods, Foxhall and The Palisades, and as such is sometimes confused for them.
Berkley is a suburban neighborhood, naturally isolated from the more cosmopolitan parts of the city by its location between parks. It is home to the Embassy of Germany and George Washington University's Mt. Vernon campus.
It was also very nearly the site of an official residence of the mayor of Washington, D.C., in 2001 when Betty Brown Casey, widow of millionaire Maryland real estate developer Eugene B. Casey, donated 17 acres (69,000 m2) of land at 1801 Foxhall Road to the city for the purpose of a mayoral mansion. However, the city was bogged down for nearly a year in attempting to purchase adjacent land from the National Park Service; additionally, many vocal city activists and residents felt that for a city marked by increasing gentrification and socioeconomic diversity, building a mayoral residence in such a wealthy enclave sent a bad message. The city ultimately gave up on the project in 2003 and ceded the land to the Salvation Army.
Bloomingdale, District of Columbia:
The neighborhood of Bloomingdale is in the heart of Washington, D.C. less than two miles (3 km) north of the United States Capitol building. Specifically, Bloomingdale lies south of Channing Street, N.W., east of 2nd Street, N.W. (north of Rhode Island Avenue), east of Third Street, N.W. (south of Rhode Island), north of Florida Avenue, N.W., and west of North Capitol Street. The neighborhood lies in Ward 5, and the current Councilmember is Kenyan McDuffie. Bloomingdale's most local representatives are (from south to north) Advisory Neighborhood Commissioners James Fournier, John Salatti, and Hugh Youngblood (term 2011-2012).
Quite a few universities are close to Bloomingdale. Howard University borders the neighborhood on the north. Trinity and Catholic Universities are about one mile (1.6 km) northeast. George Washington University and Gallaudet University both are about three miles (5 km) southwest and southeast respectively. The University of the District of Columbia is less than four miles (6 km) northwest. Georgetown University is about four miles (6 km) west, while its law school campus is one mile south. American University is about six miles (10 km) northwest.
Most of the homes within Bloomingdale are rowhouses built around 1900 and are in the Victorian style. Nearby neighborhoods that border on Bloomingdale are Pleasant Plains to the northwest, LeDroit Park to the west, Shaw to the southwest, Truxton Circle to the southeast, Eckington to the east, and Edgewood to the northeast.
The present day boundaries of Bloomingdale originated from several large estates. The subdivisions that currently comprise Bloomingdale are that of Bloomingdale to the southeast, LeDroit Park to the southwest, the Moore & Barbours addition in the center, the Dobbins addition to the northeast, and another LeDroit Park addition to the northwest (map to be added). See Hopkins and Baist Real Estate Atlases, Vol. 3, 1968.
George Beale, born in 1792, in Hampton, Virginia and Emily Truxton, born 30 Sept 1798 in Perth Amboy, New Jersey were married in Philadelphia May 4, 1819.
Mr. Beale was decorated in 1820 with a Congressional Silver Medal for "Galantry, good conduct, and services in the decisive and splendid victory gained on Lake Champlain on the 11th of September 1814 over a British Squadron of superior force" in the Battle of Plattsburgh in the War of 1812.
In 1823, Mr. Beale bought the 10-acre (40,000 m2) Bloomingdale estate one mile (1.6 km) north of the Capital for $600.00 from Wm Bradley (who was from Wilkes-Barre, PA). This estate grew to 50 acres (200,000 m2), and became the family home for several Beale generations until the death of Emily Beale in 1885. The Beale's grandson Edward Beale McLean, was the publisher and owner of the Washington Post from 1916 until 1933.
George died on the 4th of April 1835 at the age of 44 at his "Bloomingdale" estate in Washington, DC and was buried in Congressional Cemetery. Emily (picture to be added) passed on 50 years later on May 21, 1885 and is also buried at Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D.C.
One of George's and Emily's seven children saw the growing value in the estate's property. That son, George Nancrede Beale, upon his return from accompanying his noted brother Edward Fitzgerald Beale on one of the famous Fremont Expeditions west (see John C. Frémont), began selling large tracts of the estate to developers.
It is theorized that George Nancrede's favorite grandson, George Beale Bloomer (son of George Nancrede's daughter Violet), is where Bloomingdale derived its name.
Located just outside the original boundary of the City of Washington as designed by Maj. Pierre L’Enfant in 1792, and in the former County of Washington, the neighborhood referred to today as the Bloomingdale, began to develop its residential character in 1877, just over a century after Pierre L'Enfant's plan was developed. The lands that comprise Bloomingdale first began as large estates and orchards and, just prior to its residential development, were utilized for a variety of light industry. Boundary Street, today Florida Avenue, was the dividing line between paved, planned streets (to the south of Boundary), laid out in the original city L'Enfant plan, and rural country (to the north of Boundary), where a variety of landowners maintained orchards, large country estates, and later, a mixture of commercial properties. In this area, a small community of Eckington emerged as a result of an intersection of two rural roads and at about the time that a much more planned and protected LeDroit Park was conceived in the late 1870s.
One of the first uses for the area following agriculture, was for train yards and transportation routes into and out of the City of Washington. In 1889, Silas Daish established a large flour mill at the corner of 3rd and Florida Avenue, seen in the photograph (Photograph to be added). It was one of only two flour mills in the City of Washington at the time, the other one being located nearby on Delaware Avenue, NE. The lack of paved streets and the intrusion of massive telephone poles were among the sources of early complaints from Eckington residents, many of whom felt the promises of "idyllic residential living" had been dashed by the intrusion of new and increasing industrial activity.
Leftover from the earlier industry, to the north, McMillan Park Sand Filtration Site ("Site") and McMillan Reservoir ("Reservoir"). The Site and Reservoir, bounded by North Capital, Channing, and First Streets, NW and Michigan Avenue, NW, is just part of a chain of public green spaces established in Senator James McMillan's 1901 "McMillan Plan" for beautifying Washington (see McMillan Commission). The original grounds of the Site were designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr.. The Army Corps added the Reservoir and the Washington City Aqueduct (10 meters in diameter and 4 miles (6.4 km) long) between 1882 and 1902. In 1905, a slow-sand water-filtration method was added at the Site, and additional improvements were continually made. Following the death of Senator McMillan in 1902, the grounds of the Site and Reservoir were renamed McMillan Park. The Site was designated a historic landmark by the DC Historic Preservation Review Board in 1991. One of the finest surviving examples of American Beaux Arts fountains was sculpted by Augustus S. Gaudens a member of the McMillan Commission (along with Olmstead). The fountain is located behind a fence on the grounds of the Reservoir (but was formerly located in Crispus Attucks Park). Efforts have been underway to have the fountain relocated to a central and public location in Bloomingdale.
The rural nature of this area changed before the turn of the twentieth century as the rest of Washington neighborhoods began to experience the pressures of growth stemming from the huge influx of workers and freed men for decades following the Civil War. Bloomingdale, located just east of LeDroit Park (one of the Nations’s earliest suburban developments when it was opened in 1877, changed when developers and land speculators began to chart the industrial and orchard lands for proposed development, including the area between the village of Eckington and LeDroit Park. Roads corresponding to the grid system of Washington's streets were improved, curbed, and paved, in order to introduce extensions of the popular trolley lines, opening the area to residential development in the late 1890s. Earlier, streams and creeks were re-directed into large infrastructure projects under Alexander "Boss" Shepard like that of Tiber Creek that was redirected into the Washington City Aqueduct under the now existing street, Flagler Place.
Churches often led the way, and in 1902, the Rhode Island Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church built their elegant structure at the desirable corner of Rhode Island and 1st Street, N.W. In a postcard dated 1907, (picture to be added) the church was headed by Reverend J. M. Gill. The Church, now named Mount Bethel Baptist Church, (current pastor Bobby L. Livingston, Sr.) houses an active congregation founded by former slaves. Mount Bethel was a staging point for the famed 1963 March on Washington. The century-old church was featured on the History Channel’s show, “ America’s Most Endangered” because of its need for preservation and upkeep, which the church has begun. The congregation is actively involved in community outreach programs.
Construction on some of the earliest homes were completed between 1898 and 1900. Eleven homes along the unit block of Rhode Island Avenue joined the M. E. church just a year later, in 1903, and the remainder of the surrounding blocks had been built in a speculative nature by such developers as Harry Wardman, Francis Blundon, and S. H. Meyers within the following decade. The neighborhood website contains a list of Bloomingdale's Wardman built homes. Many of Wardman's first homes incorporate elements of Richardson Romanesque architecture (a sub-category of Victorian). This can be seen in the ornate floral and vine-like stone carving around doors and windows of many Bloomingdale homes. His later homes, like those on Adams and Bryant Streets, are in an architectural style for which he is most prominently known, brick homes which incorporate a deeper setback from the street and large covered front porch. Blundon built several homes along 1st Street and including 100 W Street, NW, which he occupied with his family. The only changes to the exterior of 100 W Street since its original construction have been the former rear porch being filled in with a garage built towards the alley and the replacement of the original clay roof tiles with standard roofing material. Blundon had previously lived nearby at 67 Street, NW. (See TheInTowner, April 2008).
Home construction often necessitated school construction, with the Gage School in the 2000 block of 2nd Street being erected in 1904. Utilized for decades before school consolidation, the 21,000-square-foot (2,000 m2) facility has been turned into award-winning Parker Flats at Gage School that have retained the historic nature of the original school house building. Many homes in the northern section of Bloomingdale still retain carriage houses in the block interiors. Some have been converted to private residences.
The photograph (photo to be added) dated March 7, 1936 at right was captured on 4th Street, looking south from the 2300 block toward Rhode Island Avenue. The larger Eckington neighborhood had begun to take on the identity of several neighborhoods, including this area, coined Edgewood. Other areas of the neighborhood were absorbed into LeDroit Park and the newly named Bloomingdale to the west. The boys waiting in front of the store were no doubt hoping to earn funds carrying groceries home for shoppers in their wagons. The small store was part of the Sanitary grocery chain, founded in 1909, which had hundreds of locations throughout the district until it was purchased by the Safeway Company in 1928. The Sanitary name was utilized until 1941. In a way typical of many neighborhoods, this area, at the edge of Brookland, had a diverse population as the owners of the stores along that block reveal: Henry Lee (Laundry), Samuel Tripi (Shoe Repair), Benjamin Cherkasky (Billiards), Nazret Carcoginian (Grocer), and E. G. Schafer (Plumbing Supplies).
Samuel Gompers the founder of the American Federation of Labor in 1886 (which later became the AFL-CIO), built a house for himself at 2122 1st Street, N.W., in 1900. Born in London, England on January 26, 1850 to poor Jewish immigrants from Holland, Gompers began working as a shoemaker at the age of 10. He soon switched trades to become a cigar maker, which brought him to New York City (with his family) in 1863. He headed the AFL-CIO until his death on December 13, 1924. His house was declared an individual landmark on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974.
Another notable former resident of Bloomingdale is one of Broadway's most accomplished and versatile singer, dancer, and entertainer, Chita Rivera (1933–present). She is a recipient of the prestigious Kennedy Center honor, presented by the President of the United States, has won two Tony Awards as Best Leading Actress in a Musical and has received six additional Tony Award nominations. Known to her friends in the neighborhood as Dolores, Ms. Rivera lived with her parents (both Federal government employees) on the 2100 block of Flagler Place NW. Her father was Puerto-Rican and her mother was of Scottish and Italian descent. Chita lived in the neighborhood until the age of 15 when she auditioned for and was admitted to the prestigious Jones-Haywood School of Ballet in Washington, D.C. and her career took off.
At 127 Randolph Place, Barnett-Aden was the first privately owned black gallery in the US and one of Washington, D.C.’s principal Art galleries when it opened in 1943. Founded by James V. Herring and Alonzo J. Aden, it was named ‘Barnett-Aden' to honor Aden’s Mother’s family. Howard University professor emeritus and former head of the art department, Dr. James Herring also helped to establish the gallery (picture to be added).
While the owners of the gallery were African American, Barnett-Aden was not conceived as a “black gallery.” It was one of the few art places in the city in which artists representing different nationalities, races and ethnicities were exhibited together. Noted for its afternoon art openings the Barnett-Aden Gallery became an important social gathering place. The collection is currently housed in a museum in Tampa Bay, Florida.
Much of the neighborhood had large Italian, Irish, German, Jewish, and African American populations even before neighboring LeDroit Park had integrated. In 1948, a famous Supreme Court case, Hurd v. Hodge, 334 U.S. 24 (1948), found the enforcement of racial and religious covenants restricting home ownership from African Americans, Jews, etc. were unconstitutional. The house at issue in the case is located at 116 Bryant Street, NW and had been purchased by James M. Hodge and his wife, an African American couple. These pioneering home-owners made it easier for all Americans, regardless of race, religion, or ethnic origin, to purchase property in this country.
Today Bloomingdale proudly maintains its close-knit community-oriented character. The population is primarily African American, which has maintained deep roots in the community for many years. There is also a growing Hispanic and Caucasian population. According to the 2010 census, the diverse population of Bloomingdale was 59% African American and 30% Caucasian with the last 11% split between Hispanic, Asian, and international residents.
The neighborhood has recently undergone revitalization. Proof of this can be seen at the Parker Flats at (the former) Gage School. Designed by Architect David Haresign, AIA, Parker Flats is ranked among the top 12 Residential Designs for 2008. According to the AIA, "this old DC public school building near LeDroit Park in Northwest Washington had sat empty for more than 30 years. Today, the historic landmark is the centerpiece of a 92-unit condominium project that has catalyzed neighborhood revitalization. In addition to the complete restoration of the Gage School, the development includes two new flanking buildings that are in keeping with the architecture of the area’s early 20th century apartment buildings and row houses."
Not all of Bloomingdale's energy has gone into improving the homes. Bloomingdale is the rare D.C. neighborhood to have its own greenspace, Crispus Attucks Park (CAP). CAP is named after African-American Crispus Attucks, who was killed during the Boston Massacre and who is often regarded as the first person killed in the American Revolution. The acre-and-a-quarter park, located within the court bounded by 1st, U, V, and North Capitol Streets NW, is dedicated to all victims of violence, like Crispus Attucks himself. CAP is privately owned, but open to the public, and is maintained through the donations of time, money, and sweat of neighbors. It is a beautiful urban greenspace.
The neighborhood has many active neighborhood groups and associations including, but not limited to, the Bloomingdale Civic Association, the Bloomingdale Garden Club, the Public Safety Initiative, the Big Bear Book Club, the Big Daddy Running Club, Crispus Attucks Development Corporation (which owns and oversees CAP), and a new chapter of the 4-H Club.
New businesses have recently opened such as the Bloomingdale Inn (a bed and breakfast), Window's Market (a market and cafe with wifi access), Big Bear Cafe (a cafe, coffeehouse, small plate meals with drinks), Yoga District, Showtime Barbershop and Salon, FieldToCity (formerly named "Timor Bodega," serving hard to find produce, wines, beers, and local/organic produce on 2nd and Rhode Island Ave., N.W.) and Rustik (a brick oven pizzeria and tavern) at the corner of T & 1st Streets and Rhode Island Avenue. Every summer, the Bloomingdale Farmers' Market is open on Sundays from 10:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M. on R St between Florida Ave and 1st Street, N.W. At least one more family-friendly tavern and eatery is scheduled to open around Labor Day 2011, The Boundary Stone on Rhode Island Avenue in the old Sylvan Theater, (note that the old Sylvan Theater marquee sign was recently relit in full color neon after several decades being dark).
On May 22, 2010, D.C. Council Chair Vincent Gray officiated the dedication of a new street, Bloomingdale Court, N.W. between the 100 block of U and V Streets, N.W., and the 2000 block of 1st Street and Flagler Place, N.W. This new street came about through the efforts the residents of Bloomingdale Court and Commissioner John Salatti. The street was given its name by Frederick Louis Richardson, a local author ("Black Rush" and "The Rococo Paradox") who resides on Flagler Place.
Brightwood, District of Columbia:
Brightwood is a neighborhood located in the northwestern quadrant of Washington, D.C. Brightwood and the rest of Ward 4 are represented in the Council of the District of Columbia by Muriel Bowser.
The boundaries of Brightwood are difficult to define and have been for many years. In the mid-nineteenth century, Brightwood generally encompassed the region north of Petworth, west of Chillum, east of Rock Creek, and south of the Maryland line. Today, The Brightwood Community Association, an association of residents and business owners from the western part of Brightwood, define the neighborhood's boundaries as Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Aspen Street to the north, 16th Street and Rock Creek Park to the west, Georgia Avenue to the east, and Kennedy Street to the south. Other widely accepted variations bound Brightwood on the east by 5th Street. The DC Citizens Atlas bounds the Brightwood Assessment Neighborhood to the south at Missouri Avenue. Nearby neighborhoods include Shepherd Park and Takoma to the north, Manor Park to the east, and Sixteenth Street Heights and Petworth to the south. According to the 2010 census, the neighborhood had 11,242 residents.
Much of the retail in the neighborhood is located along Georgia Avenue. Although no Metrorail stations lie within the neighborhood, the Takoma Metrorail station is within walking distance from the northern end of neighborhood. The Fort Totten Metro Station is also within walking distance from other areas of Brightwood. There are several Metrobus routes that serve the community.
Brightwood is at an elevation of 292 feet (89 m).
The area was originally called Crystal Springs, named after the pure water that flowed from several nearby springs. One of these springs was located near the modern-day intersection of Fourteenth and Kennedy streets. The area was later known as Brighton, but residents decided to change the name to Brightwood because the postal service frequently confused it with Brighton, Maryland. Archibald White and Louis Brunett are generally given credit for coming up with the name Brightwood. The area has been known as Brightwood since the 1840s.
Emory M.E. Church was built in 1832, when A.G. Pierce donated a half-acre of land in order to build a church and a school. The original building stood two stories high. The first floor, made of logs, was used as a school. The second story, which was made of frame and used for worship, had a separate entrance from the outside. Colored worshipers sat in a gallery. The church was named after John Emory of Queen Anne's County, Maryland, who was ordained bishop in 1832, the same year as the building of the church. Bishop Emory also paid the $200 salary of the preacher's salary. In 1856, the 72-person congregation of desired a larger church, and the church building was replaced by a red-brick structure in 1856. A stone church stood from 1870 to 1921, when the present-day building was built. The churchyard was originally used as a cemetery, a customary use of such land in those days. Some of the deceased were later moved to Rock Creek Cemetery.
Brightwood is also home to Fort Stevens. During the Civil War, the Union military decided to build a fortification on the site of Emory Church. The church was torn down, and the bricks were used to build Fort Stevens and baking ovens. A nearby log building used by the church was also torn down and used to build a guardhouse for unruly soliders. Fort Stevens was attacked by 20,000 Confederate soldiers led by General Jubal Early during the Battle of Fort Stevens, July 11–12, 1864. The Confederate attack was repulsed. The congregation petitioned Congress for compensation for the torn-down church, Congress appropriated $412 for rent for use of the grounds. Following petitions from veterans formerly stationed at the fort, Congress established a park at the site and a memorial plaque. Forty soldiers are buried in the nearby historic Battleground National Cemetery. An 1885 police census documented the population of Brightwood as 104.
Brightwood was home to a horse racetrack originally named Crystal Springs Park, then Piney Branch Park, and finally Brightwood Trotting Park. A tavern was nearby, operated by Frederick G. Rohr and later by his widow Annie M. Rohr. It was common for people to watch the races, swim in nearby Rock Creek, and have a picnic lunch. After many years, Brightwood Trotting Park greatly decreased in popularity. During it's last year of operation, it was primarily used for racing mules. The course was closed in 1909 in order to make way for the extension of Sixteenth Street.
Brightwood was also the location of the first successful flight by a helicopter in 1909.
The Sheridan Theater, a motion-picture theater, opened on Georgia Avenue between Rittenhouse and Sheridan Streets in 1937. The first feature was Sing Me A Love Song.
Other historic sites include Fort View Apartments, which overlook the site of Fort Stevens and are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and the Military Road School, which opened in 1864 and was one of the first schools in Washington to open after Congress authorized the education of African Americans.
Redevelopment of the commercial area along Georgia Avenue is in progress. Condominiums were completed at the corner of Georgia and Missouri Avenues in 2006, and a new restaurant called Meridian on the first floor of the building opened in January 2008. Meridian closed in June 2008, and then reopened as Brightwood Bistro in August 2008. As of May 2012, the Brightwood Bistro has closed and the space is looking for a new tenant.
Foulger-Pratt Development Inc., the company that redeveloped much of downtown Silver Spring, had plans to build a new building with 400 residential units, restaurants, retail, and underground parking at the former site of the Curtis Chevrolet dealership at the corner of Georgia Avenue and Peabody Street. The D.C. Historical Preservation Society requested that Foulger-Pratt's design incorporate the car barn located on the site rather than demolish it, and it planned to seek historical designation for the car barn, built in 1909. In response, Foulger-Pratt proposed to raze only the rear of the structure and renovate the front. According to the application submitted to the District of Columbia Office of Planning, the ground floor would have had retail and parking; the upper floors would have had around 400 residential apartments, up to eight percent of which will be reserved as affordable; and the basement would have had a parking garage. A portion of the car barn would have been retained. According to the plan, breaking ground was anticipated in summer of 2010, but the plans ultimately fell through.
In November 2010, Wal-Mart announced interest in opening a store at the location by 2012. Wal-Mart said building a store on the site would not require a hearing before the Zoning Commission, nor any input from any advisory neighborhood commission. Some neighborhood residents are opposed to the Wal-Mart. It is not yet finalized how the car barn might be preserved within the Wal-Mart development, although Foulger-Pratt plans to remove the car barn's roof in order to salvage the roof trusses.
Brightwood Park, District of Columbia:
Brightwood Park is a small neighborhood in Northwest Washington, D.C. in the USA. The neighborhood is bounded by Georgia Avenue NW to the west, Missouri Avenue NW to the northeast and Kennedy Street NW to the south. It is located in Ward 4, which is represented in the Council of the District of Columbia by Muriel Bowser.
Brightwood Park is largely characterized by rowhouses, detached and semi-detached houses, and small neighborhood businesses. The neighborhood is often misidentified as being part of adjacent neighborhoods, such as the Brightwood neighborhood, the Petworth neighborhood to the south and the Manor Park neighborhood to the north.
Brookland, District of Columbia:
Brookland is a neighborhood in the Northeast quadrant of Washington, D.C., historically centered along 12th Street NE. Brookland is bounded by 9th Street NE to the west, Rhode Island Avenue NE to the south, and South Dakota Avenue to the east. Michigan Avenue is the northern boundary between 9th and 14th Streets; The President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home National Monument is also located near Brookland. (It is technically in Park View.) The Lincoln cottage was the once rural place where President Abraham Lincoln spent the summers of 1862 to 1864, to escape the heat and political pressures of Washington. Brookland has been nicknamed "Little Rome" by some for the many Catholic institutions clustered around The Catholic University of America (CUA) which lives atop what was Fort Slemmer, constructed to protect the city during the Civil War.
Brookland is served by the Brookland–CUA station on the Red Line of the Washington Metro.
For most of the 19th century the area was farmland owned by the prominent Middleton and Queen families. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad later connected this portion of Washington County to downtown. Bellair, the 1840 brick Greek Revival mansion built by Colonel Jehiel Brooks who married Ann Margaret Queen, still stands. It is referred to as Brooks Mansion. It is the site of offices and production facilities for the Public Access Corporation of the District of Columbia, the city's Government-access television (GAVT) channel known as DCTV.
Change came rapidly during and after the American Civil War. First, Fort Slemmer and Fort Bunker Hill were constructed as defenses against the Confederate Army, and later the Old soldiers' home was constructed to the northwest. The population of the city itself increased with the expansion of the federal government, and the former Brooks family estate became a housing tract named "Brookland."
Growth continued throughout the 1870s when the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad opened its Western Branch Line in the developing Brookland neighborhood. With the construction of nearby Sherwood, University Heights, and other tracts, and the expansion of Washington's streetcars, a middle-class streetcar suburb developed, and eventually its expansion southward met Washington's northward. Many Queen Anne style and other Victorian homes still stand.
In 1887, the Roman Catholic Church purchased the Middletown estate, adjacent to Brookland, as the site for The Catholic University of America (CUA). The presence of CUA attracted many other Catholic organizations and institutions to the area, including Trinity College (now Trinity University), established 1897, the Dominican House of Studies in 1905, the Mount St. Sepulchre Franciscan Monastery, also in 1905, or Theological College in 1917. Construction of the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception, to be the patronal church of the United States, began in 1920. The Pope John Paul II Cultural Center opened in 2001. Nearly 60 Catholic institutions called the neighborhood home by 1940. The Brookland area has been nicknamed "Little Rome" by some for the many Catholic institutions clustered around CUA.
While mostly Caucasian at its founding, Brookland integrated in the 20th century, especially after the white flight of Irish Catholics after World War II. Although there was some hostility directed at early black integration of the neighborhood, by the middle of the century, Brookland had developed into a neighborhood fairly integrated among economic classes and races. During the mid-twentieth century, Brookland could boast of such prominent residents as Ralph Bunche, Sterling Brown, Edward Brooke, Ellis O. Knox, Rayford W. Logan, and Pearl Bailey, John P. Davis, Lucy Diggs Slowe and Robert C. Weaver. It remains a relatively diverse and stable area of Washington.
Brookland was also home to the playwright Jean Kerr and her playwright/critic husband Walter Kerr who taught at nearby CUA. The writer Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings spent her childhood in Brookland.
Justine Ward, the music educator and author, lived in Brookland and built the large residence now occupied by Ronald McDonald House in the 1300 block of Quincy Street. Catholic University's School of Music is named in her honor. Also on Quincy St is the Quincy House, a long-time residence of Catholic graduate students who regularly host coffee houses and other community events.
Dance Place, located at 3225 8th Street, was founded in 1980 and serves as a theater school and community resource.
Brookland has a small but thriving business community. Full-service restaurants include Col. Brooks Tavern, San Antonio Grill, Brookland Cafe, and The Library. There is one coffee shop, Cafe Sureia. Carry-out and delivery services provide Chinese, Jamaican, and Italian food.
Brookland Hardware has anchored the 12th Street business corridor for many years. Other businesses found on the strip include Yes! Organic Market, the Brookland Inn, the Chocolate City Beer Brewery, openbox9 graphic design studio, along with realtors, art galleries, auto mechanics, salons, and interior decorating stores.
Buena Vista, District of Columbia:
Buena Vista is a large residential neighborhood in Southeast Washington, D.C., east of the Anacostia River. Politically, Buena Vista is in Ward 8, the poorest ward in the District of Columbia. Although the neighborhood is dominated by detached single-family housing and multi-family complexes, as are the adjacent neighborhoods of Barry Farm and Douglass, the homes in Buena Vista tend to be privately owned by higher-income residents.
Buena Vista is on a hilly region of southeast Washington, which has resulted in narrow and winding roads within the neighborhood. However, its high elevation means that the neighborhood has expansive views of downtown Washington, including the U.S. Capitol and the Washington Monument. Accordingly, one of the largest and most recognizable condominium complexes is called Washington View.
The western end of the neighborhood, near Sheridan Road SE, is sometimes called Sheridan. Also see article on Anacostia.
Burleith-Hillandale, District of Columbia:
Burleith is a moderately upscale neighborhood in Washington, D.C. It is bordered by Wisconsin Avenue to the East, Reservoir Road and the historic Georgetown district to the south, Whitehaven Park to the North and Glover Archbold Park to the West. The neighborhood is home to some Georgetown University students and is also home to the French embassy.
The history of Burleith can be traced back to 1886 when the Huidekoper family came into ownership of the Burleith tract of land. During their tenure as residents, they built a few buildings, but kept most of the land as woods and fields. In 1922 the Huidekeopers sold the land to Shannon and Luchs, Inc. Instead of keeping the land in its natural state like the previous owners, Shannon and Luchs decided to hire an architect to develop the area. The architect designed homes with moderate prices between $8,950-$13,500 that were targeted for middle class residents with higher than average taste.
In 1925 the Burleith Citizens Association was developed to deal with civic and social issues concerning the neighborhood. Previous civil issues have included parking, noise control, traffic lights, and the relationship with their neighbor, Georgetown University. Relations between the student community and year-round residents have seen periodic strains. The Association also plans social activities, such as picnics and children events.
The western third of Burleith is a 24-hour gated community called Hillandale; some consider this a separate neighborhood but it is technically part of Burleith. Residents of Hillandale have included U.S. Senators Joseph Lieberman (I-Connecticut) and Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), former NFL Commissioner Paul Tagliabue and Georgetown University President John J. DeGioia. Prior to 1979, Hillandale was an estate owned by John Dustin Archbold's family.
Buzzard Point, District of Columbia:
Buzzard Point is an urbanized area located on the peninsula formed by the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers in the southwest quadrant of Washington, DC, USA.
The earliest documented name for the tip of the peninsula that now constitutes the area known as Buzzard Point was Turkey Buzzard Point, in use by 1673 when it appeared on a map published that year by Augustine Herman, a Bohemian explorer and one of the early settlers of the Eastern Shore of Maryland. This name — often shortened to Buzzard Point — remained in use until the federal capital was laid out in the 1790s, at which time it became Young’s Point, from one Notley Young, the then owner of the land. Very soon thereafter it was renamed Greenleaf’s Point — or Greenleaf Point — after James Greenleaf, a land speculator and purchaser of numerous lots in the new city, many of which were located in the vicinity of the Point.
George Washington had envisioned the use of some of Greenleaf’s lots at the Point by the military, including for defensive works. In 1791, he and Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant chose the site for the emplacement of a redoubt of some sort. They acquired approximately 28 acres (110,000 m2) by a deed of trust in that year and confirmed it in a July 25, 1798 executive order. Apparently, L'Enfant intended for a fortification to be placed there, according to his city plan, setting it aside as “Military District No. 5”, because, as one author wrote, the "peninsula where the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers met was an obvious, natural military site." This site, sported a "one-gun battery mounted behind earth breastworks," possibly as early as 1791 but, at any rate, definitely by 1794. Within a few years, "The U.S. Arsenal at Greenleaf Point" grew from 28 to more than 89 acres (360,000 m2). By 1803, the "Fort" was first referred to as an "Arsenal" and Congress provided money for the construction of additional buildings.
During the American Civil War, experiments on new weaponry were carried out both at the nearby Washington Navy Yard and at the Washington Arsenal as the Army installation had come to be called. Breechloaders, the Spencer carbine, and the Gatling gun were among the weapons tested on the peninsula. In 1908, the tip of the peninsula bore the name of Arsenal Point because of its military use at the time. Washington Arsenal was renamed Fort Lesley J. McNair in 1948.
The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) most recent topographic maps identify the tip of the peninsula that contains Fort McNair as "Greenleaf Point". The tip of that peninsula first bore the name of "Turkey Buzzard Point" in the 17th century. The USGS maps also identify a lesser point to the northeast of Greenleaf Point as "Buzzard Point". (James Creek, which was excavated in the 19th century to become a branch of the [now defunct] Washington City Canal, once separated these two points. Its name persists in the present day James Creek Marina. In early days, James Creek was also known as St. James Creek.)
Although officially the name of only the tip of the peninsula, the term "Buzzard Point" now serves to identify much or all of an urbanized area south of M Street SW and west of South Capitol Street SW, excluding Fort McNair. The area has long been known as a rather grim industrial backwater of the city. Buzzard Point is close to Nationals Park, and not far from the Waterfront and Navy Yard – Ballpark Metro stations. The Buzzard Point waterfront extends from the Fort along the west bank of the Anacostia River as far as South Capitol Street at the Frederick Douglass Memorial Bridge. Moving west to east along it from the Fort are the James Creek Marina, the headquarters of the U.S. Coast Guard, and Buzzard Point Park.
In 2007, Pepco Holdings announced that it seeks to retire the Buzzard Point power plant by 2012.
Capitol Hill, District of Columbia:
Capitol Hill, aside from being a metonym for the United States Congress, is the largest historic residential neighborhood in Washington D.C., stretching easterly in front of the United States Capitol along wide avenues. It is one of the oldest residential communities in Washington, and, with roughly 35,000 people in just under 2 square miles (5 km2), it is also one of the most densely populated.
As a geographic feature, Capitol Hill rises near the center of the District of Columbia and extends eastward. Pierre L'Enfant, as he began to develop his plan for the new Federal City in 1791, chose to locate the "Congress House" on the crest of the hill, facing the city, a site that L'Enfant characterized as a "pedestal waiting for a monument"
The Capitol Hill neighborhood today straddles two quadrants of the city, Southeast and Northeast, and a large portion is now designated as the Capitol Hill historic district. The name Capitol Hill is often used to refer to both the historic district and to the larger neighborhood around it. To the east of Capitol Hill lies the Anacostia River, to the north is the H Street corridor, to the south are the Southeast/Southwest Freeway and the Washington Navy Yard, and to the west are the National Mall and the city's central business district.
L'Enfant referred to the hill chosen as the site of the future Congress House as "Jenkins Hill" or "Jenkins Heights". However, the tract of land had for many years belonged to the Carroll family and was noted in their records of ownership as "New Troy". While it was rumored that a man named Jenkins had once pastured some livestock at the site of the Capitol (and thus his name was associated with the site), artist John Trumbull, who would paint several murals inside the Capitol's rotunda, reported in 1791 that the site was covered with a thick wood, making it an unlikely place for livestock to graze. Who Jenkins was and how his name became associated with the hill, as reported by L'Enfant, remains unclear.
The neighborhood that is now called Capitol Hill started to develop when the government began work at two locations, the Capitol and the Washington Navy Yard. It became a distinct community between 1799 and 1810 as the federal government became a major employer. The first stage in its early history was that of a boarding house community developed for members of Congress. In the early years of the Republic, few Congressmen wished to establish permanent residence in the city. Instead, most preferred to live in boarding houses within walking distance of the Capitol.
In 1799, the Washington Navy Yard was established on the banks of the Anacostia River, and provided jobs to craftsmen who built and repaired ships. Many of the craftsmen who were employed both at the Navy Yard and in the construction of the Capitol chose to live within walking distance, to the east of the Capitol and the north of the Navy Yard. They became the original residential population of the neighborhood.
In 1801, President Thomas Jefferson selected the location of the Marine Barracks, which had to be within marching distance of both the Capitol and the White House, near the Washington Navy Yard. By 1810, shops, goldsmiths, blacksmiths, and churches were flourishing in the area.
The Civil War resulted in more construction in the Capitol Hill area, including the building of hospitals. Construction of new houses continued in the 1870s and 1880s. The neighborhood began to divide along racial and economic class lines.
Electricity, piped water, and plumbing were introduced in the 1890s, and were first available in the downtown areas of the District of Columbia, including Capitol Hill. There was a real estate development boom between 1890 and 1910 as the Capitol Hill area became one of the first neighborhoods having these modern conveniences.
In 1976, the Capitol Hill Historic District was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is one of the largest historic districts in the United States. The boundaries of the historic district are irregular, extending southward from F Street NE, as far east as 14th Street, as far west as South Capitol Street, and with a southern limit marked chiefly by Virginia Avenue but including some territory as far south as M Street SE. It includes buildings from the Federal period (1800 to 1820) through 1919, but most of the buildings are late Victorian.
Capitol Hill has remained a fairly stable middle-class neighborhood throughout its existence. It suffered a period of economic decline and rising crime in the mid-20th century but gradually recovered. During the so called "Crack Epidemic" of the 1980s, its fringes were often affected. More recently, the neighborhood has undergone intense gentrification.
Capitol Hill's landmarks include not only the United States Capitol, but also the Senate and House office buildings, the Supreme Court building, the Library of Congress, the Marine Barracks, the Washington Navy Yard, and Congressional Cemetery.
It is, however, largely a residential neighborhood composed predominantly of rowhouses of different stylistic varieties and periods. Side by side exist early 19th century manor houses, Federal townhouses, small frame dwellings, ornate Italianate bracketed houses, and the late 19th century press brick rowhouses with their often whimsical decorative elements combining Richardsonian Romanesque, Queen Anne, and Eastlakian motifs.
The main non-residential corridor of Capitol Hill is Pennsylvania Avenue, a lively commercial street with shops, restaurants and bars. Eastern Market is an 1873 public market on 7th Street SE, where vendors sell fresh meat and produce in indoor stalls and at outdoor farmers' stands. It is also the site of an outdoor flea market every weekend. After a major fire gutted the main market building on April 30, 2007, it underwent restoration and reopened on June 26, 2009.
Barracks Row (8th Street SE), so called because of its proximity to the U.S. Marine Barracks, is one of the city's oldest commercial corridors. It dates to the late 18th century and has recently been revitalized.
A new addition to Capitol Hill is the Community Center aptly named Hill Center. Hill Center is housed in the restored Old Naval Hospital at the corner of 9th and Pennsylvania Avenue SE. The rehabilitation of the Old Naval Hospital combines the restoration of a historically significant landmark with the cutting edge technologies of modern “green” architecture. Hill Center is a vibrant new home for cultural, educational, and civic life on Capitol Hill.
Recent estimates in Capitol Hill newspapers suggest as many as a third of all Members of Congress live on Capitol Hill while in Washington.
Famous people who were born in the Capitol Hill neighborhood include John Philip Sousa (whose birthplace, on G St., is still standing) and J. Edgar Hoover. Frederick Douglass's former house can be found in the 300 block of A Street Northeast. In the 1970s, the Douglass house was used as an African Art Museum by Warren M. Robbins.
Capitol Hill has several local community newspapers, such as the Hill Rag. The Voice of the Hill closed in May 2010.
On August 21, 2012, Armando Magtalas Balajadia went to US Library of Congress Madison Building to have a tour there. The James Madison Memorial Building is one of three buildings that make up the Library of Congress and is part of the United States Capitol Complex. The building was constructed from 1971 to 1976, and serves as the official memorial to President James Madison. It is located between First and Second Streets SE on Independence Avenue, in Washington, DC. The Madison Building is home to the Mary Pickford Theater, the "motion picture and television reading room" of the Library of Congress. The theater hosts regular free screenings of classic and contemporary movies and television shows. The Madison building also houses the Law Library of Congress and the United States Copyright Office.
After this, he went to US Library of Congress Jefferson Building to have a tour there. The oldest of the three United States Library of Congress buildings, the Thomas Jefferson Building was built between 1890 and 1897. It was originally known as the Library of Congress Building and is located on First Street SE, between Independence Avenue and East Capitol Street in Washington, D.C. The Beaux-Arts style building is known for its classicizing facade and elaborately decorated interior. John L. Smithmeyer and Paul J. Pelz won the competition for the architectural plans of the library in 1873. They took several trips to Europe to study other great libraries and continued developing details of the design for another nine years until the final submission of plans in 1892. At this point the plans were turned over to Brig. Gen. Thomas Lincoln Casey, Chief of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, for construction of the building. Edward Pearce Casey, the twenty five year old son of Brig. Gen. Thomas Lincoln Casey, was the artistic supervisor during construction. The Thomas Jefferson Building, containing some of the richest public interiors in the United States, is a compendium of the work of classically-trained American sculptors and painters of the "American Renaissance", in programs of symbolic content that exhibited the progress of civilization, personified in Great Men and culminating in the American official culture of the Gilded Age; the programs were in many cases set out by the Librarian of Congress, Ainsworth Rand Spofford. The central block is broadly comparable to the Palais Garnier in Paris, a similarly ambitious expression of triumphant cultural nationalism in the Beaux-Arts style that had triumphed at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893. On the exterior, sculptured portrait heads that were considered typical of the world's races were installed as keystones on the main storey's window arches. The Court of Neptune Fountain centered on the entrance front invites comparison with the Trevi Fountain; its sculptor was Roland Hinton Perry. The copper dome, originally gilded, was criticized at the structure's completion, as too competitive with the national Capitol Building.
Finally, he went to US Library of Congress Adams Building to have a tour there but the building is not for the tour, it is for research only. The John Adams Building is one of three library buildings of the Library of Congress in the United States. The building was originally built simply as an annex to the Library's Main Building (the Thomas Jefferson Building). It opened its doors to the public on January 3, 1939. It is located on Second Street SE between Independence Avenue and East Capitol Street in Washington, DC.
On August 22, 2012, Armando Magtalas Balajadia went to US Supreme Court to have a tour there after he visited at The White House. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate (but largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and over state court cases involving issues of federal law, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. The Court, which meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C., consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed after impeachment. The US Supreme Court is located besides the US Capitol along 1st Street corners E. Capitol Street and Maryland Avenue. The front building of the US Supreme Court is under construction when Armando visited there. Still, they are open for the business and tour from Monday to Friday, from 8:00am to 4:30pm.
After this, he went to US Senates' and US House of Representatives' Buildings to have a tour there. Unfortunately, these buildings are not available for the public tour. You cannot go inside the buildings unless if you have an appointment with any of the US Senators and US House of Representatives. These buildings are located besides the US Capitol. He would like to see in person the Congressman Pete Stark (representing the Alameda County, California) and US Senators Barbara Boxer and Dianne Feinstein (representing California) but unfortunately he was not able to enter at their buildings. The Speaker of the House is John Boehner of Ohio. There are 100 US Senators and their buildings are: Russel Senate Office Building, Hart Senate Office Building, and Dirksen Senate Office Building. There are 435 US House of Representatives and their buildings are: Cannon House Office Building, Longworth House Office Building, Rayburn House Office Building, and Ford House Office Building.
On August 23, 2012, Armando Magtalas Balajadia went to The Capitol to have a tour there but he decided to have a lunch first at Talay Thai Restaurant which is close to the Capitol South Metro Train Station. The Talay Thai Restaurant is a well-known Thai restaurant in Washington, DC for many years already. Most of the US Senators, US House of Representatives, and government employees are eating there. The restaurant is always busy especially during the working days. The foods there are good and he ordered Thai Iced Tea, Larb Gai (Thai Spicy Chicken and Toasted Rice), and Pork Panang Curry with steamed rice. Although the ordering of the foods are quite long because of the crowded people in the restaurant, the foods and dishes are excellent. If you want to visit at this restaurant, you must take a public transportation like bus or Metro Train because the problem there is parking because the whole area of Washington, DC is always crowded.
After his lunch, he went to US Capitol to have a tour there. The United States Capitol is the meeting place of the United States Congress, the legislature of the federal government of the United States. Located in Washington, D.C., it sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall. Though it has never been the geographic center of the federal district, the Capitol is the origin by which both the quadrants of the District are divided and the city was planned. Officially, both the east and west sides of the Capitol are referred to as "fronts." Historically, however, only the east front of the building was intended for the arrival of visitors and dignitaries. Like the federal buildings for the executive and judicial branches, it is built in the distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. The Capitol Grounds cover approximately 274 acres (1.11 km²), with the grounds proper consisting mostly of lawns, walkways, streets, drives, and planting areas. Formerly, a number of monumental sculptures were located on the east facade and lawn of the Capitol including The Rescue and George Washington. The current grounds were designed by noted American landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, who planned the expansion and landscaping performed from 1874 to 1892. In 1875, as one of his first recommendations, Olmsted proposed the construction of the marble terraces on the north, west, and south sides of the building that exist today. Olmsted also designed the Summer House, the open-air brick building that sits just north of the Capitol. Three arches open into the hexagonal structure, which encloses a fountain and twenty-two brick chairs. A fourth wall holds a small window that looks onto an artificial grotto. Built between 1879 and 1881, the Summer House was intended to answer complaints that visitors to the Capitol had no place to sit and no place to obtain water for their horses and themselves. Modern drinking fountains have since replaced Olmsted's fountain for the latter purpose. Olmsted intended to build a second, matching Summer House on the southern side of the Capitol, but congressional objections led to the project's cancellation. Up to four U.S. flags can be seen flying over the Capitol. Two flagpoles are located at the base of the dome on the East and West sides. These flagpoles have flown the flag day and night since World War I. The other two flagpoles are above the North (Senate) and South (House of Representatives) wings of the building, and fly only when the chamber below is in session. The flag above the House of Representatives is raised and lowered by House pages. The flag above the United States Senate is raised and lowered by Senate Doorkeepers. To raise the flag, Doorkeepers access the roof of the Capitol from the Senate Sergeant at Arms' office. Several auxiliary flagpoles, to the west of the dome and not visible from the ground, are used to meet congressional requests for flags flown over the Capitol. Constituents pay for U.S. flags flown over the Capitol to commemorate a variety of events such as the death of a veteran family member. The underground, three-level, 580,000-square-foot (54,000 m2) United States Capitol Visitor Center (CVC) opened on December 2, 2008. The CVC is meant to bring all visitors in through one handicap accessible security checkpoint, yards away from the Capitol itself, increasing security and offering visitors educational exhibits, a food court, and restrooms. The estimated final cost of constructing the CVC was US$621 million. The project had long been in the planning stages, but the 1998 killings of two Capitol Police officers provided the impetus to start work. Construction began in the fall of 2001. Critics say that security improvements have been the least of the project's expense. Construction delays and added features by Congress added greatly to the cost. Citizens Against Government Waste have called the CVC a "Monument to Waste". However many, including those who work in the Capitol, consider it a necessary and appropriate historical project. It is located completely underground, though skylights provide views of the Capitol dome.
Capitol Riverfront, District of Columbia:
The Capitol Riverfront is a business improvement district (BID) located just south of the United States Capitol between Capitol Hill and the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. It was created by the District of Columbia City Council and approved by Mayor Fenty in August 2007. The BID is a mixed-use neighborhood. It was a former industrial area that is being transformed into a business center, urban neighborhood, entertainment district and waterfront destination. The project involves adding over 9,000 new apartments, condominiums and lofts, modern office towers, 1,200 hotel rooms, one million square feet of retail amenities including a two future grocery stores, new restaurants, shops, and cafes. Over 33,900,000 square feet (3,150,000 m2) of new office, residential, hotel and retail space as well as four new parks are planned over the next 10–15 years. The new 5-acre (20,000 m2) riverfront Yards Park opened in fall 2010.
The BID is governed by a Board of Directors composed of twenty property and business owners and seven non-voting community stakeholders. The BID’s FY2009 budget is approximately $1.5 million and is funded by an assessment that applies to commercial property (including land and parking lots), residences of ten or more units, and hotels.
The Capitol Riverfront is served by the Navy Yard – Ballpark and Capitol South stations on the Washington Metro system. The neighborhood is also served by I-395 and I-295, a circulator bus route to union station, and is a 10 minute taxi ride to Reagan National Airport (DCA).
A 16-mile (26 km) riverwalk provides a path for people to walk, run or bike on along the banks of the Anacostia River. Sections of the trail currently exist to the eleventh street bridge and behind the Washington Navy Yard. Upon completion of Yards park in 2010 the Navy opened the riverwalk trail behind the Navy Yard to the public.
Key points in the History of the Capitol Riverfront include: The Anacostia Waterfront Initiative adopted by Mayor Williams and the District Council in 2003 to advanced the river's clean-up and identified opportunities to increase access to the river and target new areas for development; The consolidation of Naval Sea Systems Command headquarters operations at the Navy Yard campus; Location of the U.S. Department of Transportation headquarters which opened in 2007; and the location of Nationals Park, the new home of the Washington Nationals baseball team.
Historically, the Anacostia River, along the banks of the Capitol Riverfront, was once a deep water channel, burgeoning with natural resources and home to the Nacotchtank Indians. In 1791, L’Enfant designed the plan for Washington D.C. and, recognizing the assets of the Anacostia River, located the city’s new commercial center and wharfs there. In 1799, the Washington Navy Yard was established in the area and for several decades was the nation’s largest naval shipbuilding facility. Today, the Washington Navy Yard is the Navy's longest continuously operated Federal facility.
The Navy Yard was a bustling nautical center during the 19th Century and played an integral role in the development of the area. The lively wharf was a hub for jobs, serving ships with lumber and raw materials for the growing city. It also played a key role in defending the city from British invasion in 1812. Surrounding the wharfs was an extensive commercial district, light industrial businesses, and one of the city’s most significant neighborhood communities. As the city and nation evolved, the Navy Yard changed from ship building to production of finished ship products and weapons ammunition. By the mid-1940s the Navy Yard and the expanded Annex area reached peak production with 26,000 employees in 132 buildings on 127 acres (0.51 km2) of land.
During the last century of the city’s growth, however, the River had deteriorated. The pollution of the river diminished its value as an asset to the city. After WWII, the Navy Yard consolidated its operations to a smaller campus, which slowed the economic and neighborhood activity of the area. Around this same time, the elevated portion of the Southeast-Southwest Freeway was completed, creating a physical barrier for access to the River. The combination of these and several other factors led to the river and the riverfront neighborhoods becoming neglected.
Capitol View, District of Columbia:
Capitol View is a neighborhood located in both southeast Washington, D.C, straddling East Capitol Street east of the Anacostia River. It is triangular in area, bounded by East Capitol Street to the north, Central Avenue SE to the southwest, and Southern Avenue to the southeast. Capital View is located within Ward 7 and is represented on the D.C. Council by Yvette Alexander.
The easternmost neighborhood in the Southeast quadrants, Capitol View takes its name from the fact that the Capitol is in full, albeit distant, view on its western skyline.
The residents of Capitol View tend to be middle to upper middle-class and overwhelmingly African American. The cityscape is both urban and suburban consisting of bungalows and semi-detached town homes.
Chevy Chase, District of Columbia:
Chevy Chase is a neighborhood in northwest Washington, D.C. It borders Chevy Chase, Maryland, a collection of similarly affluent neighborhoods.
The neighborhood is generally agreed to be bounded by Rock Creek Park on the east, Western Avenue (which divides D.C. and Maryland) and Tennyson Street on the north, and Reno Road to the west. Opinions differ on the southern boundary, where Chevy Chase meets Forest Hills, but many residents consider it to be Broad Branch Road between 32nd and 27th streets. The main roads leading in and out of Chevy Chase, D.C. are Connecticut Avenue, Nebraska Avenue, Reno Road, Military Road and Western Avenue. The area is served by the M4, L1, L2, L4 E2, E3, E4 and E6 Metrobus lines. Chevy Chase is within walking distance of three Red Line stations: Van Ness-UDC, Tenleytown-AU, and Friendship Heights. The public schools that serve Chevy Chase are Lafayette Elementary, Ben W. Murch Elementary, Alice Deal Middle School, and Woodrow Wilson Senior High.
In the late 1880s, Senator Francis G. Newlands of Nevada and his partners began the aggressive acquisition of farmland in northwest Washington, D.C. and southern Montgomery County, Maryland, for the purpose of developing a residential streetcar suburb. (See Washington streetcars.) They founded the Chevy Chase Land Company in 1890, and its eventual holdings are now known as this neighborhood and Chevy Chase, Maryland. Chevy Chase DC was developed beginning in the early 1900s after construction was completed on the Chevy Chase Line, a streetcar line stretching to and beyond the northwestern boundary of the District of Columbia, thereby linking the area to downtown. Over succeeding decades the formerly remote area was transformed from farmland and woods to middle-class housing. The housing stock in Chevy Chase DC includes many "Sears Catalog Homes", a popular housing option in the early 20th century that allowed individuals of modest means to order by mail the materials and instructions for a home and build it themselves.
The neighborhood's major commercial road is Connecticut Avenue NW, which, in addition to commercial establishments, is home to apartments, a community center, and a regional branch of the D.C. Public Library. Unlike many urban neighborhoods that have lost local businesses to large chains and suburban malls, the small, generally locally owned businesses along Connecticut Avenue remain, and are well-patronized by the local population. These businesses include Magruder's Supermarket, established in 1875, and the Avalon Theatre, which opened in 1923 as a silent film house and ran until the theater underwent renovations in 2003. The Avalon thereafter reopened as a non-profit movie theater. In addition to historical commercial buildings the area has multiple parks including Rock Creek Park, Lafayette Park and Livingston Park.
Prior to 2002, the entire neighborhood was located in Ward 3. Because the 2000 census revealed an increase in population in Ward 3 and a decrease in population in Ward 4, the Council of the District of Columbia voted to reassign the portion of the neighborhood east of Broad Branch Road to Ward 4 as of January 1, 2002. Many residents were quite upset at the decision. The Chevy Chase Civic Association filed suit to prevent the redistricting on the grounds that it would reduce African American voting strength in Ward 3 and would result in unconstitutional and racially motivated gerrymandering. The U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia upheld the redistricting, as did the U.S. Court of Appeals. Following the redistricting, the neighborhood's Advisory Neighborhood Commission was called 3/4G.
District of Columbia Public Schools operates public schools, including Lafayette Elementary, Alice Deal Junior High School, and Woodrow Wilson High School (actually located in Tenleytown. Private schools located in Chevy Chase DC include St. John's College High School, Catholic high school; and Blessed Sacrament School, Catholic elementary school.
The District of Columbia Public Library operates the Chevy Chase Neighborhood Library.
Colonial Village, District of Columbia:
Colonial Village is an affluent residential neighborhood in northwest Washington, D.C. It is bounded by Portal Drive to the north, 16th Street to the east, and Rock Creek Park to the west and south. Colonial Village and the rest of Ward 4 are represented in the Council of the District of Columbia by Muriel Bowser.
The neighborhood is suburban in character, full of winding streets, detached houses on large lots, and open space. It is home to many high officials of the District of Columbia government.
Columbia Heights, District of Columbia:
Columbia Heights is a neighborhood in central Washington, D.C.
Located in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C., Columbia Heights borders the neighborhoods of Shaw, Adams Morgan, Mount Pleasant, Park View, Pleasant Plains, and Petworth. On the eastern side is Howard University. The streets defining the neighborhood's boundaries are 16th Street to the west; Spring Road to the north; 11th Street to the east; and Florida Avenue to the south. It is served by a subway station stop on the Washington Metro Green and Yellow Lines.
Once farmland on the estate of the Holmead family (called "Pleasant Plains"), Columbia Heights was part of Washington County, District of Columbia (within the District but outside the borders of the city of Washington; the southern edge of Columbia Heights is Florida Avenue, which was originally called "Boundary Street" because it formed the northern boundary of the Federal City). In 1815 an engraver from England, William J. Stone, purchased a 121-acre tract of the Holmead estate — east of Seventh Street Road (present-day Georgia Avenue), and north of Boundary Street — and established his own estate known as the Stone Farm. Nearby, construction of the first building for Columbian College, now The George Washington University, was completed in 1822 on the campus which was bounded by Columbia Road, 14th Street, Boundary Street (Florida Avenue) and 13th Street. The area began developing as a suburb of Washington soon after the Civil War when horse-drawn streetcars delivered residents of the neighborhood to downtown.
The northern portion of modern-day Columbia Heights (i.e., north of where Harvard Street currently lies) was, until the 1880s, a part of the village of Mount Pleasant. The southern portion still retained the name of the original Pleasant Plains estate.
In 1871, Congress passed the D.C. Organic Act, which eliminated Washington County by extending the boundaries of Washington City to be contiguous with those of the District of Columbia. Shortly afterward, in 1881–82, Senator John Sherman, author of the Sherman Antitrust Act, purchased the land north of Boundary Street between 16th Street and 10th Street, including the Stone farm, developing it as a subdivision of the city and calling it Columbia Heights in honor of the college at its heart. (The neighborhood's eastern, major traffic artery, Sherman Avenue, is named after its early developer.) Much of Sherman's purchase was land belonging to Columbian College. The college had decided to move into the center of Washington's downtown business district and in 1904, changed its name to The George Washington University in an agreement with the George Washington Memorial Association. Columbian, now George Washington, relocated its major operations to Foggy Bottom by 1912. The federal government also purchased some of the college's land and built Meridian Hill Park in the early 20th century. The park, also known as "Malcolm X Park", contains many statues including those of Joan of Arc, Dante and James Buchanan.
Upscale development in Columbia Heights circa 1900, was designed to attract upper level managers of the Federal government, U.S. Supreme Court justices, and high-ranking military officers. An imposing mansion known as “Belmont” marked the entrance to the neighborhood between Florida and Clifton Streets. The mansion was emblematic of the confidence that the affluent placed in the concept that Columbia Heights represented the ideal suburb. In the early 1900s, Columbia Heights was the preferred area for some of Washington’s wealthiest and most influential people. Residents included authors Jean Toomer, Ambrose Bierce, Sinclair Lewis, Chief Justice Melville Fuller, and Justice John Marshall Harlan.
In 1901, the Commissioners of the District of Columbia renamed streets all over the District in accordance with a newly adopted street-naming system. In Columbia Heights, Clifton Street, Roanoke Street, Yale Street, Princeton Street, Harvard Street, Columbia Road, Kenesaw Avenue, Kenyon Street, Dartmouth Street, and Whitney Avenue were renamed Adams Street, Bryant Street, Channing Street, Douglas Street, Evarts Street, Franklin Street, Girard Street, Hamlin Street, Hooker Street, and Irving Street, respectively.
In 1902, there was a building boom in North Columbia Heights, with the expansion of the streetcar down 11th St, 14th St and 16th St. Homes were being built for between $2,000 and $5,000 and a total of five million dollars worth of homes were being built.
In 1904, the Columbia Heights Citizen’s Association published an illustrated brochure entitled "A Statement of Some of the Advantages of Beautiful Columbia Heights." The publication describes Columbia Heights as a “residential section populated by public and spirited citizens.” Residents at that time were “ever alive to the mental, moral, and spiritual advancements of their homes surroundings.” The neighborhood organization sponsored competitions for landscaping house lots and offered prizes to the best kept lawn and garden, at the same time fought the erection of street poles and overhead telegraph and telephone lines. 1904 was also the year that Congress authorized changing the names of streets to align with the alphabetical and orderly naming convention of the Old City (i.e., below Boundary Street, now Florida Avenue). The name changes were put into effect the following year.
By 1914, four street car lines served the section providing transportation to downtown Washington in twenty minutes. The neighborhood also became the home of the Washington Palace Five professional basketball team.
The popularity of the neighborhood resulted in the construction of several large apartment buildings during the beginning of the twentieth century that changed the suburban character of the area into a more urban and densely populated district. As of mid-century, however, Columbia Heights retained much of its upscale residential appeal, supporting establishments such as the ornate Tivoli Theatre movie house (completed in 1924). The neighborhood was adjacent to Washington's thriving middle class black community and came to be home to some of its most notable citizens by the 1930s. Duke Ellington, who had grown up in Shaw, purchased his first house at 2728 Sherman Avenue in Columbia Heights. Marvin Gaye attended Cardozo Senior High School in the neighborhood.
In 1949, during the era of racial segregation in the public schools, Central High School, an under-enrolled white high school that bordered the southern edge of Columbia Heights, saw the existing Cardozo High School, a "colored" high school moved to the site to accommodate the growing African American population. Significant demographic changes began in the late 1940s when African American residents began to buy apartment buildings previously owned by whites, and in the 1950s blacks bought individual homes in ever increasing numbers. The neighborhood remained a middle-class African American enclave in Washington, along with the nearby Shaw neighborhood and Howard University through the mid-1960s.
The neighborhood was featured in various clips, and as the home of protagonists Helen and Bobby Benson, in the 1951 film The Day the Earth Stood Still.
In 1968, following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., riots ravaged the 14th St. Corridor in Columbia Heights along with many other Washington neighborhoods. Many homes and shops remained vacant for decades.
In 1999, however, the city announced a revitalization initiative for the neighborhood focused around the Columbia Heights Metro station that opened that year. The opening of the Metro station served as a catalyst for the return of economic development and residents. Within five years, it had gentrified considerably, with a number of businesses (including a Giant Food supermarket and Tivoli Square, a commercial and entertainment complex) and middle-class residents settling in the neighborhood. However, unlike some gentrified neighborhoods in the city, it had not become homogeneous: as of 2006, Columbia Heights is arguably Washington's most ethnically and economically diverse neighborhood, composed of high-priced condominiums and townhouses as well as public and middle-income housing.
On March 5, 2008, DC USA, a 546,000 square-foot (51,000 m²) retail complex across the street from the Columbia Heights Metro station opened. The space is anchored by retailers Target and Best Buy. The shopping center also includes 390,000 square feet (36,000 m²) of underground parking. A number of bars and restaurants have since opened in the neighborhood, including Pho 14, which was voted best pho in Washington City Paper's Best of DC 2010 poll.
The 2000 census figures estimated Columbia Heights with a 58 percent African American population; 34 percent Hispanic population; 5.4 percent white population; and 3.1 percent other.
The 2010 census figures estimated Columbia Heights with a 43.5 percent African American population; 28.1 percent Hispanic population; 22.9 percent White population; 3.2 percent Asian population; and a 2 percent Other population. In 2012, Columbia Heights was named one of the fastest gentrifying neighborhoods in the United States.
In January 2005, the neighborhood became the first permanent home of the GALA Hispanic Theatre which moved into the newly refurbished Tivoli Theatre, a former movie theater built in 1924 that had been vacant since 1976. GALA is a theater company dedicated to performing Spanish-language plays.
In November 2006, the Dance Institute of Washington opened a new 12,000 square foot (1100 m²) facility across the street from the Tivoli Theater.
The neighborhood is also home to the Greater Washington Urban League, the local affiliate of the National Urban League, in addition to other non-profit community and service-based organizations including: The Latin American Youth Center, CentroNia, Central American Resource Center (CARECEN) and the Shaw/Columbia Heights Family and Community Support Collaborative, all located along the 14th St. and Columbia Rd. corridor.
Columbia Heights is home to the Ecuadoran embassy on 15th Street and the Mexican Cultural Institute on 16th Street. Located next door to the Mexican Cultural Institute is the former residence of the Ambassador of Spain. The Spanish Embassy is working to turn the former residence into a cultural facility. The Polish and Lithuanian Embassies are also located in Columbia Heights on 16th Street, as is the Cuban Interest Section of the Swiss Embassy.
Residents are zoned to District of Columbia Public Schools.
The Columbia Heights neighborhood appears in film. The 1993 film In the Line of Fire features a scene where a call from the John Malkovich character is traced to a building on Park Road. When the Clint Eastwood character and other police officers arrive on the street, they spot Malkovich walking past the Old Columbia Heights Firehouse and a chase ensues.
Klaatu, the alien in the 1951 film The Day the Earth Stood Still, played by Michael Rennie, boards in a house at 1412 Harvard Street, for his stay in Washington.
Congress Heights, District of Columbia:
Congress Heights is a largely residential neighborhood in Southeast Washington, D.C. Although it is in the poorest section of what is generally regarded as inner-city Washington—the area east of the Anacostia River -- it is very likely the most economically diverse, and most suburban, neighborhood in that section of the city. Congress Heights, in fact, contains the largest commercial district in Washington's Ward 8, along Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X Avenues.
Congress Heights is bounded by Mississippi Avenue SE to the southeast, Wheeler Road SE to the east, Alabama Avenue SE to the north, and Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue and South Capitol Street to the northwest. It is served by the Congress Heights station on the Green Line of the Washington Metro. Most residents live in garden apartments, but there are also older single-family bungalows. Frank W. Ballou High School and Hart Middle School serve the neighborhood.
Congress Heights, which takes its name from its hilly geography that offers a view across the Anacostia to the Capitol, began development as a neighborhood in the late 1920s when it was established as the end of the Washington streetcars line. Prior to World War II the D.C. National Guard was housed at Camp Simms. The facility included firing ranges up to 1,000 yards. It was on Alabama Avenue at the intersection of Stanton Road and Barry Farms Housing Project. During WW II it had gun emplacements (Anti-Aircraft) to defend Washington from air attack. After World War II, the U.S. Army built a military reserve facility, in the central part of Congress Heights. The campus of St. Elizabeth's Hospital already stood immediately northwest of the neighborhood. Many early residents worked at the U.S. Naval Gun Factory, which stopped production about 1960, or at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. The annual Martin Luther King Birthday parade on the avenue bearing his name, is a notable neighborhood event. Starting in 2006, the parade date was changed from January to April to accommodate for cold weather. Now, the parade is held closer to the anniversary of his death (April 4, 1968), rather than his birthday (January 15, 1929). There is a new tennis and learning center on Mississippi Avenue, combining sports and school tutoring.
Because of its location in Southeast Washington, Congress Heights had experienced great urban neglect for several decades.The reason it experienced neglect was due to the great white flight as it was termed by journalists in the middle sixties. However, in the 21st century, Congress Heights has received a great deal of attention from the city and urban developers. Nineteen development projects worth a total of $455 million are underway or completed in Congress Heights as of November 2006. Among these are a redevelopment of St. Elizabeth's West Campus for federal use; a request for proposals from the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority for the area around the Congress Heights Metro station; and a planned redevelopment of Camp Simms as a mixed-use project, including a new Giant Grocery Store, enhancement to an existing shopping center, and 75 new residential units.
Crestwood, District of Columbia:
Crestwood, which forms part of the residential area known as the Gold Coast on upper 16th Street NW, is an entirely residential neighborhood located in Northwest Washington, D.C. and bordered on three sides by Rock Creek Park. It is known for its affluent, educated and majority black population. Heading north from the White House on 16th Street, Crestwood is among the first neighborhoods that features single-family homes and lawns.
Just to the north, residents can take advantage of the Carter Barron Amphitheatre and William H.G. FitzGerald Tennis Center. The amphitheatre hosts concerts and many free cultural events during the spring and summer, and the Legg Mason Tennis Classic is played at the Tennis Center next door. Crestwood is centrally located on 16th Street, being about fifteen minutes by car from both the K Street business district and downtown Silver Spring, Maryland.
The closest Metro stations are Georgia Avenue-Petworth and Columbia Heights on the Green Line and Van Ness-UDC on the Red Line. Buses run regularly on 16th Street to Silver Spring to the north and government offices, downtown stores and the National Mall to the south.
As of the 2000 Census, area shown in the map Crestwood had a population of 2,184. The neighborhood is 61.5% black, 31.7% white, and about 1% Asian and Latino. In 2000 the median household income was $85,180 and the median per capita income was $49,344. Crestwood is home to former mayor Adrian Fenty and former city council chairman Linda W. Cropp.
Deanwood, District of Columbia:
Deanwood is a neighborhood in Northeast Washington, D.C., bounded by Eastern Avenue to the northeast, Kenilworth Avenue to the northwest, and Nannie Helen Burroughs Avenue to the south.
One of Northeast's oldest neighborhoods, Deanwood’s relatively low density, small wood-frame and brick homes, and dense tree cover give it a small-town character that is unique in the District of Columbia. Much of its housing stock dates from the early 20th century. Several well-known African-American architects, including W. Sidney Pittman and Howard D. Woodson, and many skilled local craftsmen designed and built many of its homes. The neighborhood was once home to Nannie Helen Burroughs, an early civil rights leader and the founder of the National Training School for Women and Girls, an independent boarding school for African-American girls founded in 1909 and located on 50th Street, NE. Marvin Gaye (1939-1984) was also born and raised in this neighborhood. From 1921 to 1940, Deanwood was also home to Suburban Gardens (50th and Hayes NE), a black-owned amusement park that served thousands of African-American residents during a time of racial segregation.
It is served by the Deanwood Metro station on the Orange Line.
The neighborhood features prominently in crime author Jim Beame's short story, "Jeanette."
Douglass, District of Columbia:
Douglass is a residential neighborhood in Southeast Washington, D.C., on the eastern side of St. Elizabeths Hospital, on the border of the Congress Heights Metro Station. It is bounded by Suitland Parkway to the north and east, Alabama Avenue to the south, and the St. Elizabeths campus to the west. Douglass, which sits atop a hilly ridge that is the highest point in Southeast Washington, was once almost entirely occupied by two public housing complexes: Douglass Dwellings and Stanton Dwellings. It is now one of the up-and-coming areas of Washington, DC, with a SuperGiant, several national banks, and an International House of Pancakes. It is also very close to THEARC (Town Hall Education Arts and Recreation Center), with institutions such as Trinity Washington University (formerly Trinity College), the School of the Washington Ballet and the Levine School of Music. The area has several new homes in the $200-400,000 range, and several historic Jewish cemeteries, including the Adas Israel and Elisavetgrad cemeteries.
The neighborhood is named for the famed American abolitionist Frederick Douglass, whose homestead sits approximately one mile north of his namesake community.
Downtown, District of Columbia:
Downtown is a neighborhood of Washington, D.C., as well as a colloquial name for the central business district in the northwest quadrant of the city. Geographically, the area extends roughly five to six blocks west, northwest, north, northeast, and east of the White House. Several important museums, theaters, and a major sports venue are located in the area.
The boundaries of the Downtown district are irregular and difficult to define. Historically, downtown was bounded by Pennsylvania Avenue NW, New York Avenue NW, Massachusetts Avenue NW, and Indiana Avenue NW. This area includes the Penn Quarter, Mount Vernon Square, Chinatown, and Judiciary Square neighborhoods. With the growth of the city, "downtown" is now considered to include Federal Triangle, the Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site, the K Street NW corridor west to Connecticut Avenue NW, and the Connecticut Avenue NW corridor below the Dupont Circle neighborhood.
However, in 2004 Frommer's defined downtown's boundaries as 7th Street NW, Pennsylvania Avenue NW, 22nd Street NW, and P Street NW. This definition includes the neighborhoods listed above, as well as Foggy Bottom, West End, Logan Circle, and the lower part of the Dupont Circle neighborhood. This more expansive definition of downtown is due to extensive construction of major new office buildings around Farragut Square, west along K Street NW, and along Connecticut Avenue NW. Similar construction in the area east of 7th Street to Union Station (bounded on the north by Massachusetts Avenue NW and to the south by Constitution Avenue NW) was, by the mid 2000s, beginning to push the boundary of "downtown" eastward. Cassidy & Pinkard, a real estate commercial services company, defined downtown in 2004 as extending from P Street NW south to Constitution Avenue NW, and from 15th Street NW east to 4th Street NW. This is mostly concurrent with the definition adopted by Frommer's.
By the 1990s and continuing into the 2010s, the core of the downtown district was almost exclusively commercial, and its primary commercial use was as office buildings. The area also featured a number of attractions, including museums (such as the International Spy Museum, National Aquarium, National Archives, National Building Museum, National Museum of Women in the Arts, National Portrait Gallery, Newseum, and Smithsonian American Art Museum) and theaters (such as Ford's Theatre, National Theatre, Shakespeare Theatre, Warner Theatre, and Woolly Mammoth Theatre). The Penn Quarter and Chinatown areas in particular are home to many bars and restaurants, and the observation deck in the tower of the Old Post Office Pavilion is known for its spectacular views of the city. 7th Street NW between H and F Streets NW—a short commercial strip known as "Gallery Place"—has become a major hub of bars, restaurants, theaters, and upscale retail shops.
However, even as late as 2010, most of the core area tended to be empty of pedestrian foot traffic at night, except for streets immediately around theaters and restaurants. Downtown D.C. has been adding residents, however, and pedestrian traffic at night is increasing. In 1990, the area had about 4,000 residents, but this had increased to 8,449 by 2010. Such increases appear small, but are more significant than they seem because the city's height restrictions limit population density. The completion of the $950 million CityCenterDC project in late 2013 is estimated to add another 1,000 or more residents. One exception to the low nighttime foot traffic is Gallery Place. Large crowds gather day and night at Gallery Place, especially after sporting events at the Verizon Center. Crime and street brawls in the area skyrocketed in the area and its adjacent Gallery Place Metro station between 2008 and 2010, primarily due to the large groups of teenagers (from throughout the metropolitan region) gathering there.
Several notable restaurants exist in the downtown district, including Fogo de Chão, Kinkead's, Loeb's NY Deli, Old Ebbitt Grill, and Wok 'n' Roll (located in the Mary E. Surratt Boarding House). Chinatown and Gallery Place are noted for being geographically small but also having a very large number of restaurants.
The Verizon Center (originally named the MCI Center), a major basketball, hockey, and events venue, opened in the Chintaown neighborhood on the eastern edge of the downtown district in 1997. It proved to be a major attraction, drawing more than 20 million visitors in its first decade of operation.
The majority of downtown Washington is composed of office buildings of varying architectural styles. The oldest tend to be of the Federal school, as are the White House, the Treasury Building, Blair House, and the rowhouses that line Lafayette Square. Others run the gamut from Neoclassical (such as the buildings at Federal Triangle) to Second Empire-style (the Eisenhower Executive Office Building) to postmodern (One Farragut Square South and Franklin Tower at 1401 I Street NW).
Unlike other large cities in the U.S., Washington's downtown has a low skyline. With the advent of the skyscraper and the construction of the Cairo Hotel, residents were concerned that the city's European feel might be dwarfed by high-rise buildings. Congress therefore passed the Heights of Buildings Act in 1899, limiting any new building in Washington to a height of 110 feet (34 m). The act was amended in 1910 to allow buildings 20 feet (6.1 m) higher than the width of the adjacent street.
As of 2006, the tallest building in downtown Washington—excluding the Washington Monument, U.S. Capitol, Washington National Cathedral, and the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception, all of which are outside of the downtown district—is the Old Post Office Pavilion, whose 315-foot (96 m) tall clock tower looms far above other nearby structures. The tallest commercial building is One Franklin Square, at 210 feet (64 m).
A number of public urban parks exist in the downtown area. Among the more prominent are: Farragut Square, Franklin Square, Judiciary Square, Lafayette Square (the portion of President's Park north of the White House), McPherson Square, Mount Vernon Square, Pershing Park, Scott Circle, Thomas Circle, and Washington Circle.
The largest paved square in the city, Freedom Plaza, is located on Pennsylvania Avenue NW between 13th and 14th Streets NW.
Two business improvement districts cover the downtown D.C. area. The Downtown DC Business Improvement District (Downtown DC BID) is bounded by 16th Street NW, Massachusetts Avenue NW, and Constitution Avenue NW, and is funded by a voluntary tax provided by 825 businesses in the area. The Golden Triangle Business Improvement District (Golden Triangle BID) is bounded by 16th Street NW, Massachusetts Avenue NW, 21st Street NW, and Pennsylvania Avenue NW. Both BIDs work to enhance the diversity of business in their respective jurisdictions as well as the quality of life by providing directions for tourists, improving street and sidewalk cleanliness, and advising police about potential or existing problems.
Various federal (Federal Protective Service, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Secret Service, United States Mint Police, United States Park Police, etc.), city (Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia, District of Columbia Housing Authority Office of Public Safety), and regional (Metro Transit Police Department) law enforcement agencies have concurrent, overlapping jurisdiction in downtown D.C. Both BIDs in the area also provide semi-uniformed unsworn police forces, which help to maintain order and provide street intelligence by communicating via cell phone with the Metropolitan Police Department and Metro Transit Police. D.C. Housing Authority Police do not have jurisdiction outside public housing, but do patrol Gallery Place to pick up and provide intelligence on the activities of youth congregating there who live in city-provided housing units./h4>
After his arrival at Dulles International Airport (IAD) at 5:15pm, He went to the Super Shuttle station to take the shuttle bus going at Motel 6 in Washington, DC together with the other passengers. Since there are no hotel shuttles at the airport, you have to take either a taxi or Super Shuttle going to Washington, DC. While traveling going to the passengers' hotel in Washington, DC, they passed by the Downtown Area of Washington, DC. The Downtown Area of Washington, DC is also a crowded area because it is a national capital of USA. It is also more peaceful and cleaner city compared with New York City and other cities in the East Coast Area. Armando was very exited to have a tour in Washington, DC because it is his first time to visit there. He didn't know the names of the streets yet. Although it was raining there, still the area is crowded especially at the Downtown Area. He finally arrived at Motel 6 at around 6:30pm. The motel is located at Penn Street corner 4th Street in Washington, DC.
After he took a rest inside the Motel 6 and finished his dinner, he went to the Downtown Area of Washington, DC at around 7:30pm to have a tour there and to study the routes of Metro Train. Thanks God that he got a copy of visitors' map of Washington, DC there. Because of the map, he knows the name of the streets there especially the location of the tourist attractions there. After he passed by the Downtown Area of Washington, DC, he went to The White House to see the closest roads and closest Metro Train station there. He saw already the Visitors' Entrance Area for the tour at The White House. There are many securities and policemen around The White House Area. The White House is still beautiful at night. There are still many tourists there taking the pictures and videos from the gates and fences. The City Hall of Washington, DC is only 2 blocks away from The White House. The weather there was nice and the rain was finally finished. He finished his night tour at around 11:00pm and took a ride at Metro Train immediately from Federal Triangle Metro Train Station to No-Ma Gallaudett U Metro Train Station because the train stations will close at 12:00am. The No-Ma Gallaudett U Metro Train Station is just a walking distance from Motel 6.
On August 22, 2012, Armando Magtalas Balajadia went to The White House which is located at the Downtown Area of Washington, DC. It is also located two blocks from the City Hall of Washington, DC along Pennsylvania Avenue. The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States. Located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C., the house was designed by Irish-born James Hoban, and built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the Neoclassical style. It has been the residence of every U.S. president since John Adams. When Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he (with architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe) expanded the building outward, creating two colonnades that were meant to conceal stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began almost immediately, and President James Monroe moved into the partially reconstructed house in October 1817. Construction continued with the addition of the South Portico in 1824 and the North in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years later, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office which was eventually moved as the section was expanded. The third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events; Jefferson's colonnades connected the new wings. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946, creating additional office space. By 1948, the house's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were completely dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt. Today, the White House Complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, Cabinet Room, Roosevelt Room, East Wing, and the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, which houses the executive offices of the President and Vice President. The White House is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, and Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The term White House is regularly used as a metonym for the Executive Office of the President of the United States and for the president's administration and advisers in general. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture".
NOTE: By the way, if you want to visit at The White House, you must contact your Congressman and 2 US Senators of your state at least one month to 6 months in advance in order for you to get or receive your Tour Pass. You have to visit at the official website of your Congressman and 2 US Senators of your state. You have to follow the procedures and instructions very well once they received your request thru e-mail. The procedure in getting the Tour Pass has been changed since the September 11, 2001 Tragedy. All guests and visitors must have a good record and not recently convicted in order for you to receive a Tour Pass. If you are a US Permanent Resident or Tourist, you must contact your Embassy of your country at Washington, DC office at least one month to 6 months in advance for security reasons. In this case, Armando send a tour request to Congressman Pete Stark (representing Alameda County, California), and US Senators Barbara Boxer and Dianne Feinstein on July 1, 2012 and he got a reply thru e-mail on July 15, 2012. He got his Tour Pass on August 1, 2012 thru e-mail also. If you got your confirmation letter thru mail or e-mail, you must bring it to The Visitors' Center so that they will give you the Official Tour Pass Ticket. The Official Tour Pass Ticket must be given to the Official Guard of The White House at the day and time of your tour appointment. You must be there at The White House at least 1 hour before your tour appointment. Armando got the appointment schedule on August 22, 2012 at 7:30am. He arrived at The White House approximately at 6:15am. There are so many visitors at The White House approximately at least 1000 people per day. The White House Tour is open from Tuesday to Saturday, from 7:30am to 11;30am. Be there at exactly time because late comers will not allowed to enter at The White House. This is a memorable tour for him and it is the first time to visit and see The White House.
On August 24, 2012, Armando Magtalas Balajadia went to the Downtown Area of Washington, DC to have a farewell tour while riding in Super Shuttle going to Dulles International Airport (IAD) in Chantilly, Virginia. The Super Shuttle was picking the other passengers from their hotel while traveling to different places and landmarks in Washington, DC before they proceed to the airport. So far, he enjoyed his vacation for five days there to have a tour at the main tourist attractions and landmarks including The White House and US Capitol. Right now, Armando is now familiar with the names of the streets, landmark locations, and the Metro Train stations and schedules. The names of the streets in Washington, DC are mostly the names of the States, numerals, and government terms or words. So far, he likes the environment of Washington, DC although there's a rain mostly in the afternoon or evening. He will miss this place. This is a memorable tour experience and he's wishing that he will visit in Washington, DC again later in the future.
Finally, they arrived at Dulles International Airport (IAD) at around 9:15am from a heavy traffic in Washington, DC. Armando was very nervous at the airport because there are many people at Southwest Airlines booth and the inspection line was too long. Fortunately, he make it to the Departure Area at 10:30am and the departure time is 10:45am going to San Francisco International Airport (SFO) with a stop over at Chicago Midway International Airport (MDW). He left the airport at 10:45am and arrived at Chicago Midway International Airport at 11:30am for the plane change. He took his lunch there and did a window shopping at the stores there while waiting for the plane departure at 3:30pm. He left the airport at 3:30pm and arrived at San Francisco International Airport at 5:30pm. Thanks God that his vacation to Washington, DC. is very successful and memorable although this is his first time to visit there.
Dupont Circle, District of Columbia:
Dupont Circle is a traffic circle, park, neighborhood, and historic district in Northwest Washington, D.C. The traffic circle is located at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue NW, Connecticut Avenue NW, New Hampshire Avenue NW, P Street NW, and 19th Street NW. The Dupont Circle neighborhood is bounded approximately by 16th Street NW to the east, 22nd Street NW to the west, M Street NW to the south, and Florida Avenue NW to the north. The local government Advisory Neighborhood Commission (ANC 2B) and the Dupont Circle Historic District have slightly different boundaries.
Dupont Circle is served by the Washington Metro Red Line at the Dupont Circle Metro station. There are two entrances: north of the circle at Q Street NW and south of the circle at 19th Street NW.
Dupont Circle is located in the "Old City" of Washington, D.C. — the area planned by architect Pierre Charles L'Enfant — but remained largely undeveloped until after the American Civil War, when there was a large influx of new residents. The area that now constitutes Dupont Circle was once home to a brickyard and slaughterhouse. There also was a creek, Slash Run, that ran from 16th Street near Adams Morgan, through Kalorama and within a block of Dupont Circle, but the creek has since been enclosed in a sewer line. Improvements made in the 1870s by a board of public works headed by Alexander "Boss" Shepherd transformed the area into a fashionable residential neighborhood.
In 1871, the Army Corps of Engineers began construction of the traffic circle, then called Pacific Circle, as specified in L'Enfant's plan. On February 25, 1882, Congress renamed the circle to "Dupont Circle", and authorized a memorial statue of Samuel Francis Du Pont, in recognition of his service as a rear admiral during the Civil War. The statue, sculpted by Launt Thompson, was erected in 1884, and the circle was landscaped, with exotic flowers and ornamental trees. In 1921, the current double-tiered white marble fountain replaced the statue, which was moved to Rockford Park in Wilmington, Delaware. Daniel Chester French and architect Henry Bacon, the co-creators of the Lincoln Memorial, designed the fountain, which features carvings of three classical figures symbolizing the sea, the stars and the wind on the fountain's shaft.
During the 1870s and 1880s, mansions were built along Massachusetts Avenue, one of Washington's grand avenues, and townhouses were built throughout the neighborhood. In 1872, the British built a new embassy on Connecticut Avenue, at N Street NW. By the 1920s, Connecticut Avenue was more commercial in character, with numerous shops. Some residences, including Senator Philetus Sawyer's mansion at Connecticut and R Street, were demolished to make way for office buildings and shops. In 1933, the National Park Service took over administering the circle, and added sandboxes for children, though these were removed a few years later.
Connecticut Avenue was widened in the late 1920s, and increased traffic in the neighborhood caused a great deal of congestion in the circle, making it difficult for pedestrians to get around. Medians were installed in 1948, in the circle, to separate the through traffic on Massachusetts Avenue from the local traffic, and traffic signals were added. In 1949, traffic tunnels and an underground streetcar station were built under the circle as part of the now-defunct Capital Transit project. The tunnels allowed trams and vehicles traveling along Connecticut Avenue to pass more quickly past the circle. When streetcar service ended in 1962, the entrances to the underground station were filled in and paved over, leaving only the traffic tunnel.
The neighborhood began to decline after World War II and the 1968 riots, but began to enjoy a resurgence in the 1970s, fueled by urban pioneers seeking an alternative lifestyle. The neighborhood took on a bohemian feel and became an area popular among the gay and lesbian community. Along with The Castro in San Francisco, Hillcrest in San Diego, Greenwich Village in New York City, Boystown in Chicago, Oak Lawn in Dallas, Montrose in Houston, and West Hollywood in Los Angeles, Dupont Circle is considered a historic locale in the development of American gay identity. D.C.'s first gay bookstore, Lambda Rising, opened in 1974 and gained notoriety nationwide. In 1975, the store ran the world's first gay-oriented television commercial.
Gentrification accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, and the area is now a more mainstream and trendy location with coffeehouses, restaurants, bars, and upscale retail stores. Since 1997, a weekly farmers market has operated on 20th Street NW.
The area's rowhouses, primarily built before 1900, feature variations on the Queen Anne and Richardsonian Romanesque revival styles. Rarer are the palatial mansions and large freestanding houses that line the broad, tree-lined diagonal avenues that intersect the circle. Many of these larger dwellings were built in the styles popular between 1895 and 1910.
One such grand residence is the marble and terra cotta Patterson house at 15 Dupont Circle (currently the Washington Club). This Italianate mansion, the only survivor of the many mansions that once ringed the circle, was built in 1901 by New York architect Stanford White for Robert Patterson, editor of the Chicago Tribune, and his wife Nellie, heiress to the Chicago Tribune fortune. Upon Mrs. Patterson's incapacitation in the early 1920s, the house passed into the hands of her daughter, Cissy Patterson, who made it a hub of Washington social life. The house served as temporary quarters for President and Mrs. Calvin Coolidge in 1927 while the White House underwent renovation. The Coolidges welcomed Charles Lindbergh as a houseguest after his historic transatlantic flight. Lindbergh made several public appearances at the house, waving to roaring crowds from the second-story balcony, and befriended the Patterson Family, with whom he increasingly came to share isolationist and pro-German views. Cissy Patterson later acquired the Washington Times-Herald (sold to The Washington Post in 1954) and declared journalistic warfare on Franklin D. Roosevelt from 15 Dupont Circle, continuing throughout World War II to push her policies, which were echoed in the New York Daily News, run by her brother Joseph Medill Patterson, and the Chicago Tribune, run by their first cousin, Colonel Robert R. McCormick.
Today's Dupont Circle includes the Strivers' Section, a small residential area west of 16th Street roughly between Swann Street and Florida Avenue. The Strivers' Section was an enclave of upper-middle-class African Americans — often community leaders — in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The area includes a row of houses on 17th Street owned by Frederick Douglass and occupied by his son. It takes its name from a turn-of-the-century writer who described the district as "the Striver's section, a community of Negro aristocracy."
The area, which was once considered an overlap of the Dupont Circle and Shaw neighborhoods, is today an historic district. Many of its buildings are the original Edwardian-era residences, along with several apartment and condominium buildings and a few small businesses.
The neighborhood is centered around the traffic circle, which is divided between two counterclockwise roads. The outer road serves all the intersecting streets, while access to the inner road is limited to through traffic on Massachusetts Avenue. Connecticut Avenue passes under the circle via a tunnel; vehicles on Connecticut Avenue can access the circle via service roads that branch from Connecticut near N Street and R Street.
The park located within the circle is maintained by the National Park Service. The central fountain designed by Daniel Chester French provides seating, and long curved benches around the central area were installed in 1964. The park within the circle is a gathering place for those wishing to play chess on the permanent stone chessboards. Tom Murphy, a homeless championship chess player, is a resident. The park has also been the location of political rallies, such as those supporting gay rights and those protesting the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund.
In 2009, a tug of war was sponsored by the Washington Project for the Arts.
In 1999 Thelma Billy was arrested handing out Thanksgiving dinner to the homeless.
The Dupont Circle neighborhood, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, is home to numerous embassies, many of which are located in historic residences. The Thomas T. Gaff House serves as the Colombian ambassador's residence, and the Walsh-McLean House is home to the Indonesian embassy. Located east of Dupont Circle on Massachusetts Avenue is the Clarence Moore House, now known as the Embassy of Uzbekistan, and the Emily J. Wilkins House, which formerly housed the Australian embassy and now is occupied by the Peruvian Chancery. Iraq operates a consular services office in the William J. Boardman House on P Street.
Other landmarks, many of which are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, include the International Temple, Embassy Gulf Service Station, Christian Heurich Mansion (also known as Brewmaster's Castle), and the Phillips Collection, the country's first museum of modern art. The Richard H. Townsend House located on Massachusetts Avenue now houses the Cosmos Club. The Dumbarton Bridge, also known as the Buffalo Bridge, carries Q Street over Rock Creek Park and into Georgetown and was constructed in 1883. The Nuns of the Battlefield sculpture, which serves as a tribute to over six hundred nuns who nursed soldiers of both armies during the Civil War was erected in 1924. The Mansion on O Street a luxury boutique hotel, private club, events venue and museum has been a fixture in Dupont Circle for over 30 years and includes over 100 rooms and 32 secret doors. The Brickskeller Inn & Bar has long been a popular bar in the neighborhood.
In addition to its residential components, consisting primarily of high-priced apartments and condominiums, Dupont Circle is home to some of the nation's most prestigious think tanks and research institutions, including the Brookings Institution, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the German Marshall Fund, the Center for Global Development, The Eurasia Center, and the Peterson Institute. The renowned Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of The Johns Hopkins University is located less than two blocks from the circle. Dupont Circle is also home to the Original Founding Church of Scientology, the first such church established by the religion's founder, L. Ron Hubbard. The Phillips Collection, the nation's first museum of modern art, is located near the circle; its most famous and popular work on display is Renoir's giant festive canvas Luncheon of the Boating Party. Additionally, the national headquarters of the Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America, the nation's oldest veterans organization, the National Museum of American Jewish Military History, and the Washington, D.C. Jewish Community Center are also located in Dupont Circle.
Dupont Circle is served by the Dupont Circle station on the Red Line of the Washington Metro.
Capital Pride is an annual LGBT pride festival held each June in Washington. As of 2007, the festival is the fourth-largest LGBT pride event in the United States, with over 200,000 people in attendance. The Capital Pride parade takes place annually on Saturday during the festival and travels through the streets of the neighborhood.
Held annually since 1986, the Dupont Circle High Heel Race takes place on the Tuesday before Halloween (October 31). The race pits dozens of drag queens against each other in a sprint down 17th Street NW between R Street and Church Street, a distance of about three short blocks. The event attracts thousands of spectators and scores of participants, who begin the festivities in late afternoon; the race proper starts at 9 p.m. and lasts a few minutes.
The event is sponsored by the nonprofit Dupont Circle Main Streets and by JR's DC Bar and Grill.
Dupont Park, District of Columbia:
Dupont Park is a residential neighborhood located in southeast Washington, D.C. It is bounded by Fort Dupont Park to the north, Pennsylvania Avenue SE to the south, Branch Avenue to the west, and Fort Davis Park to the east.
Dupont Park is nestled into the parkland of Fort Davis and Fort Dupont Parks, the grounds of two Civil War-era forts that were constructed for the defense of Washington. The year-round Fort Dupont ice- skating rink is also located in this area.
Dupont Park is a distinct neighborhood from the nearby Fort Dupont, although both border the park and take their name from it. Neither should Dupont Park be confused with Dupont Circle, a much more commercial and upscale neighborhood in the Northwest quadrant.
Fairfax Village, District of Columbia:
Fairfax Village is a small neighborhood of garden apartments and townhouses located in southeast Washington, D.C in the Hillcrest area. It is bound by Alabama Avenue SE to the northwest, Pennsylvania Avenue SE to the northeast, Suitland Road to the southwest, and Southern Avenue to the east. At one time, former mayor Marion Barry lived close to here.
Foggy Bottom, District of Columbia:
Foggy Bottom is one of the oldest late 18th and 19th-century neighborhoods in Washington, D.C. The area is thought to have received the name because its riverside location made it susceptible to concentrations of fog and industrial smoke, an atmospheric trait that did not prevent the neighborhood from becoming the original location of the United States Naval Observatory. Foggy Bottom is west of downtown Washington, in the Northwest quadrant, bounded roughly by 17th Street to the east, Rock Creek Parkway to the west, Constitution Avenue to the south, and Pennsylvania Avenue to the north. Much of Foggy Bottom is occupied by the main campus of the George Washington University.
The name Foggy Bottom often is used as a metonym for the United States Department of State because its headquarters is in the neighborhood, as are the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts; Friendship Lodge Odd Fellows Hall; and the infamous Watergate complex, site of the Watergate burglaries which led to President Richard Nixon's resignation. GWU has grown significantly over the past decades and now covers much of the neighborhood, which has many historic old homes and numerous mid-rise apartment buildings.
The southern edge of Foggy Bottom is home to many federal government offices, including the State Department. The Main Interior Building (headquarters of the Department of the Interior), the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters, and the Federal Reserve Board buildings all lie on or around Virginia Avenue. To the east lies the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, home to the Executive Office of the President of the United States and the Office of the Vice President of the United States. On the other side of the office is the White House, which is not in the neighborhood.
Foggy Bottom is also home to numerous international and American organizations. The World Bank buildings, the International Finance Corporation, the International Monetary Fund, the Office of Personnel Management, DAR Constitution Hall of the Daughters of the American Revolution, the American Pharmacists Association, the American Red Cross National Headquarters, the Pan American Health Organization, and the Organization of American States are all located in the neighborhood. In addition, the Mexican and Spanish Embassies are located in Foggy Bottom, both on Pennsylvania Avenue.
Just south of the Watergate Complex on the Potomac River lies the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. The Kennedy Center is the home of the National Symphony Orchestra and numerous other theatrical and musical exhibitions. At the eastern edge of the neighborhood is the Corcoran Gallery of Art, whose permanent collection contains works from Rembrandt, Eugène Delacroix, Edgar Degas, Thomas Gainsborough, John Singer Sargent, Claude Monet, Pablo Picasso, Edward Hopper, Willem de Kooning, Joan Mitchell, Gene Davis, among others. On Virginia Avenue is the Simon Bolivar Memorial. George Washington University's Lisner Auditorium and Smith Center are frequently home to major concerts, as does DAR Constitution Hall.
Foggy Bottom was once a community of white and black laborers employed at the nearby breweries, glass plants, and city gas works. These industrial facilities are also cited as a possible reason for the neighborhood's name, the "fog" being the smoke given off by the industries. The historic neighborhood is preserved and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The Foggy Bottom area was the site of one of the earliest settlements in what is now the District of Columbia, when German settler Jacob Funck subdivided 130 acres (0.53 km2) near the meeting place of the Potomac River and Rock Creek in 1763. The settlement officially was named Hamburgh, but colloquially was called Funkstown, and attracted few settlers until the 1850s, when more industrial enterprises came into the area. Funck also set aside land in Hamburgh for a German-speaking congregation in 1768. Concordia German Evangelical Church, located at 1920 G Street NW was finally founded in 1833. Today the congregation is The United Church, and is the oldest religious community remaining in Foggy Bottom.
Foggy Bottom was also the name of a line of beer by the Olde Heurich Brewing Company, which was founded near Dupont Circle in 1873 by German immigrant Christian Heurich. In addition to its main brand, Heurich, Olde Heurich's most successful products bore such local names as Senate and Old Georgetown. During the 1950s, Heurich Brewing also sponsored the city's professional baseball team, the Washington Senators. Industry consolidation led the brewery to cease operations in 1956. In 1961–1962, the brewery buildings were razed to make way for the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Heurich, Jr., and his two sisters donated a portion of the brewery land to the Kennedy Center in memory of their parents, and established the Christian Heurich Family as one of the Founders of the national cultural center. Although the firm was founded in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood, the modern beer was brewed in Utica, New York.
Since 1912, Foggy Bottom has been the site of The George Washington University's main campus, which has grown to encompass 42 acres of the area.
Foggy Bottom is served by the Foggy Bottom – GWU Washington Metro station, on the Blue and Orange Lines.
Metrobus routes 31, 32, 36, 37, 38B, 39, 80, H1, L1, N3, S1, X1 all serve the neighborhood.
On August 21, 2012, Armando Magtalas Balajadia went to Lincoln Memorial after he visited at US Library of Congress. The Lincoln Memorial is an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument. The architect was Henry Bacon, the sculptor of the primary statue – Abraham Lincoln, 1920 – was Daniel Chester French, and the painter of the interior murals was Jules Guerin. It is one of several monuments built to honor an American president. The building is in the form of a Greek Doric temple and contains a large seated sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and inscriptions of two well-known speeches by Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address and his Second Inaugural Address. The memorial has been the site of many famous speeches, including Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech, delivered on August 28, 1963 during the rally at the end of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Like other monuments on the National Mall – including the nearby Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, and National World War II Memorial – the memorial is administered by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks group. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since October 15, 1966. It is open to the public 24 hours a day. In 2007, it was ranked seventh on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. Although it was raining there, still there are many people visiting there especially from other countries.
After this, he went to Washington Monument which is at the front of Lincoln Memorial. The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate the first US president, General George Washington. The monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss, is both the world's tallest stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk, standing 555 feet 5 1⁄8 inches (169.294 m). Taller monumental columns exist, but they are neither all stone nor true obelisks.Construction of the monument began in 1848, but was halted from 1854 to 1877, and finally completed in 1884. The hiatus in construction happened because of co-option by the Know Nothing party, a lack of funds, and the intervention of the American Civil War. A difference in shading of the marble, visible approximately 150 feet (46 m) or 27% up, shows where construction was halted. Its original design was by Robert Mills, an architect of the 1840s, but his design was modified significantly when construction resumed. The cornerstone was laid on July 4, 1848; the capstone was set on December 6, 1884, and the completed monument was dedicated on February 21, 1885. It officially opened October 9, 1888. Upon completion, it became the world's tallest structure, a title previously held by the Cologne Cathedral. The monument held this designation until 1889, when the Eiffel Tower was completed in Paris, France. The monument stands due east of the Reflecting Pool and the Lincoln Memorial. The monument was damaged during the Virginia earthquake of August 23, 2011 and Hurricane Irene in 2011; it remains closed to the public while the structure is assessed and repaired. The National Park Service estimates the monument will be closed until 2014. Difficulties in repair include complexities such as the time needed to erect scaffolding. You can go there by walking along the sidewalk of Reflecting Pool. At World War II Memorial and DC War Memorial, you will see the names of the 50 States which are written at each tomb. It is located at Independence Avenue and 17th Street. Also, the Washington Monument is also a good place or venue for the sports events.
Forest Hills, District of Columbia:
Forest Hills is a quiet residential neighborhood in the northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C., United States, bounded by Connecticut Avenue NW to the west, Rock Creek Park to the east, Chevy Chase to the north, and Tilden Street NW to the south. The neighborhood is frequently referred to as Van Ness, both because of its proximity to the University of the District of Columbia (UDC)'s Van Ness campus, and because it is served by the Van Ness-UDC station on the Washington Metro's Red Line.
In addition to its location adjacent to Connecticut Avenue, Forest Hills is served by the Red Line of the Washington Metro, and the Crosstown Line (H2, H3 and H4) and Connecticut Avenue Line (L1, L2, and L4) of the D.C. Metrobus.
The Howard University School of Law campus is across Connecticut Avenue from UDC on Upton Street NW. The Levine School of Music is located on Upton Street, in the building originally occupied by the Carnegie Geophysical Laboratory. The Edmund Burke School, founded in 1968, is located on Upton Street, in the building that was originally occupied by Devitt Prep. The Hillwood Museum, located in a house that once belonged to philanthropist and socialite Marjorie Merriweather Post, contains her collection of decorative objects, including several Fabergé eggs.
The embassies of the Czech Republic and the Netherlands are located on Linnean Avenue NW in Forest Hills. The embassy of Hungary is just south of Tilden Street in Cleveland Park, and a number of other embassies are located just to the west in North Cleveland Park.
Forest Hills contains the former site of the Civil War-era Fort Kearny, of which no trace remains today.
Forest Hills also contains Soapstone Valley Park, which surrounds a tributary of Rock Creek.
The National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology) was at one time the largest employer in the neighborhood.
Fort Lincoln, District of Columbia:
Fort Lincoln is a neighborhood located in northeastern Washington, D.C. It is bounded by Bladensburg Road to the northwest, Eastern Avenue to the northeast, New York Avenue NE to the south, and South Dakota Avenue NE to the southwest. The town of Colmar Manor, Maryland, is across Eastern Avenue from the Fort Lincoln neighborhood, as is the Fort Lincoln Cemetery.
The name Fort Lincoln was originally used for a Civil War Fort in adjacent Prince George's County, Maryland, across the D.C. line from the Washington neighborhood bearing its name.
The Fort Lincoln area includes a Civil War-era fort (Fort Lincoln) that was constructed for the defense of Washington. The fort was built in the summer of 1861 along the District line in adjacent Prince George's County, Maryland, directly along the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad between Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington.
The fort, built to serve as an outer defense of the City of Washington, was named in honor of President Abraham Lincoln by general order #10 AOO in September 1861. The Brigade of General Joseph Hooker was first to occupy this area. In immediate command of the fort was Captain T.S. Paddock. The artillery guns were placed by the Department of Defense to commemorate this occasion.
The fort is now part of Fort Lincoln Cemetery, and open for public visitation. The original earthworks are a portion of the original fortifications which make up Battery Jameson of Fort Lincoln. The fort still has the Colors standing proud, with three tarnished artillery guns protecting it. The battery looks out over the scenic grounds of the cemetery and beyond. All original buildings are all gone except the old Spring House. Many of the larger trees within the cemetery may have been there during the Civil War.
This northeast Washington neighborhood is home to the Fort Lincoln new town development constructed in the 1960s and 1970s. This neighborhood is currently the home of Cathy Lanier, Chief of the D.C. Metropolitan Police. In 2011 another 42 acres of the wetland forest park was sold to make a shopping center.
Fort Stanton, District of Columbia:
Fort Stanton was a Civil War-era fortification constructed in the hills above Anacostia in the District of Columbia, USA, and was intended to prevent Confederate artillery from threatening the Washington Navy Yard. It also guarded the approach to the bridge that connected Anacostia (then known as Uniontown) with Washington. Built in 1861, the fort was expanded throughout the war and was joined by two subsidiary forts: Fort Ricketts and Fort Snyder. Following the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, it was dismantled and the land returned to its original owner. It never saw combat. Abandoned after the war, the site of the fort was planned to be part of a grand "Fort Circle" park system encircling the city of Washington. Though this system of interconnected parks never was fully implemented, the site of the fort is today a park maintained by the National Park Service, and a historical marker stands near the fort's original location.
Following the secession of Virginia and that state joining the Confederacy, Federal troops marched from Washington into the Arlington region of northern Virginia. The move was intended to forestall any attempt by Virginia militia or Confederate soldiers to seize the capital city of the United States. Over the next seven weeks, forts were constructed along the banks of the Potomac River and at the approaches to each of the three major bridges (Chain Bridge, Long Bridge, and Aqueduct Bridge) connecting Virginia to Washington and Georgetown.
While the Potomac River forts were being built, planning and surveying was ordered for an enormous new ring of forts to protect the city. Unlike the fortifications under construction, the new forts would defend the city in all directions, not just the most direct route through Arlington. In mid-July, this work was interrupted by the First Battle of Bull Run. As the Army of Northeastern Virginia marched south to Manassas, the soldiers previously assigned to construction duties marched instead to battle. In the days that followed the Union defeat at Bull Run, panicked efforts were made to defend Washington from what was perceived as an imminent Confederate attack. The makeshift trenches and earthworks that resulted were largely confined to Arlington and the direct approaches to Washington.
On July 26, 1861, five days after the battle, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan was named commander of the military district of Washington and the subsequently renamed Army of the Potomac. Upon arriving in Washington, McClellan was appalled by the condition of the city's defenses. "In no quarter were the dispositions for defense such as to offer a vigorous resistance to a respectable body of the enemy, either in the position and numbers of the troops or the number and character of the defensive works... not a single defensive work had been commenced on the Maryland side. There was nothing to prevent the enemy shelling the city from heights within easy range, which could be occupied by a hostile column almost without resistance."
To remedy the situation, one of McClellan's first orders upon taking command was to greatly expand the defenses of Washington. At all points of the compass, forts and entrenchments would be constructed in sufficient strength to defeat any attack. One area of particular concern was the region of Maryland south of the Anacostia River. Confederate artillery floated across the Potomac in secret and mounted south of the river could threaten the Washington Navy Yard and Washington Arsenal, both of which lay at the junction of the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers.
To prevent that threat from coming to pass, Brig. Gen. John G. Barnard, chief engineer of the defenses of Washington, directed that a line of forts be constructed on the heights southeast of the Anacostia River. From Fort Greble at the western end to Fort Mahan at the eastern end, the forts along the Eastern Branch River (as the Anacostia was then known) were not intended to constitute a continuous defensive line as was the Arlington Line that defended the Virginia approaches to the city. Instead, they were merely intended to deny Confederate artillery the position and to provide warning of any sneak attack upon Washington from the southeast. General Barnard illustrated this in an October, 1862 report, saying, "As the enemy cannot enter the city from this direction, the object of the works is to prevent him seizing these heights, and occupying them long enough to shell the navy-yard and arsenal. For this, the works must be made secure against assault, and auxiliary to this object is the construction of roads by which succor can be readily thrown to any point menaced."
Fort Stanton, located in the Garfield Heights, was the first fort of this line to begin construction. Begun in September 1861, the fort was located almost directly south of the Washington Navy Yard and the Navy Yard Bridge that crossed the Anacostia River and connected Uniontown, a suburb of Washington, with the city itself. Work progressed rapidly, and by Christmas, a report by General Barnard indicated the fort was "completed and armed."
Despite that speed, not everything went in the engineers' favor. Barnard's report indicates "the sites of Fort... Stanton and others were entirely wooded, which, in conjunction with the broken character of the ground, has made the selection of sites frequently very embarrassing and the labor of preparing them very great." The experience of surveying and preparing the site of Fort Stanton would serve the engineers well in the construction of future forts around Washington and in service to the Army of the Potomac. Clearing brush and forest away from the site of Fort Stanton allowed for clear fields of fire for the fort's cannon for several hundred yards in each direction, a technique that would be applied (and later used) to great effect at Fort Stevens.
By the summer of 1862, the fort was already being heavily used. A garrison had been assigned in the winter, and the 1862 report of the Commission to Study the Defenses of Washington describes Fort Stanton as "a work of considerable dimensions, well built, and tolerably well armed. Casemates for reversed fires are recommended in northwest and southwest counterscarp angles, and platforms for two or three rifled guns on the east front. The deep ravine which flanks this work on two sides requires some additional precaution, and further study of it is recommended."
The commission had been ordered by Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton to inspect each of the forts surrounding Washington in late 1862 and make a report on the deficiencies of each. In addition to examining Fort Stanton, the commission analyzed two smaller works that supported Fort Stanton. Fort Ricketts was identified in the report as "a battery intended to see the ravine in front of Fort Stanton, which it does but imperfectly," while Fort Snyder "may be regarded as an outwork to Fort Stanton, guarding the head of one branch of the ravine just mentioned. Except additional platforms for field guns, and a ditch in front of the gorge stockade, and blockhouses, nothing further seems necessary."
To support Fort Stanton and its two subsidiary positions, a military road was constructed from Uniontown to the fort. Tributary roads led from Fort Stanton to the other forts in the Eastern Branch line. These roads were eventually widened into a large ring road that circled most of the 37-mile perimeter of Washington, a fact that can be noted in the 1865 map of the city's defenses. In fall 1862, however, the commission examining the defenses noted that "the work on roads about Washington requires ten regiments for twenty days ... or an equivalent of labor in some other shape."
An 1864 inspection by Brig. Gen. Albion P. Howe, Inspector-General of Artillery, found Fort Stanton to be well-equipped, but the garrison poorly trained. The fort was armed with six 32-pounder barbettes, three 24-pounder field howitzers, four 8-inch siege howitzers, one Coehorn mortar, and one 4-inch rifled mortar. The ammunition was listed as "complete and servicible," but the 131 men of a single company of the Heavy Massachusetts Volunteer Artillery that comprised the garrison at the time were "not drilled in artillery; some in infantry."
Following the Confederate raid on Washington that resulted in the Battle of Fort Stevens, new assessments were made of weak spots in Washington's defenses. In the three years between the construction of Fort Stanton and the attack on Fort Stevens, Fort Stanton's perimeter had been greatly increased with the addition of two subsidiary forts and additional rifle pits and trenches, as well as the completion of the military ring road. A report by Maj. Gen. Christopher C. Augur of the U.S. Volunteers recommended Fort Stanton receive one 32-pounder howitzer, two 4½-inch rifled guns, four 12-pounder howitzers, and two 12-pounder Napoleons to bolster its defenses and control its position at the center of the Eastern Branch defenses.
In August 1864, Gen. Barnard was replaced in his capacity as chief engineer of the defenses of Washington by Lt. Col. Barton S. Alexander. With the war winding down, Alexander's duties consisted primarily of maintaining and expanding the already-existing defenses, rather than building new forts as Barnard had done. An October 1864 report from Col. Alexander to Brig. Gen. Richard Delafield, head of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, lists a series of improvements to Fort Stanton's already-impressive defenses. "Constructing three bastions, two new magazines, bomb-proofs, traverses, platforms, embrasures, grading glacis, and renewing abatis," the report reads.
After the surrender of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, 1865, the primary reason for manned defenses protecting Washington ceased to exist. Initial recommendations by Col. Alexander, chief engineer of the Washington defenses, were to divide the defenses into three classes: those that should be kept active (first-class), those that should be mothballed and kept in a reserve state (second-class), and those that should be abandoned entirely (third-class). Fort Stanton fell into the first-class category, as it was thought that the fort would be needed to defend the Washington Navy Yard.
Thanks to its status as a first-class fortification, Fort Stanton continued to receive regular maintenance and was continually garrisoned even after the final armistice. Work was even done to strengthen the defenses, as a stockade was added in the summer of 1865, and the parapets of the fort were re-sodded with fresh grass for better traction and to improve the look of the fortification.
With the conclusion of the fighting, however, military budgets were slashed, and even the forts that were designated for second- and first-class status were deemed surplus. The guns were removed, surplus equipment sold, and the land returned to its original owners. Fort Stanton itself was officially closed on March 20, 1866. Following the closure, the fort was abandoned to the elements, and the woods of Anacostia rapidly reclaimed the land.
In 1873, journalist George Alfred Townsend published Washington, Outside and Inside. A Picture and A Narrative of the Origin, Growth, Excellences, Abuses, Beauties, and Personages of Our Governing City, a work that covered the history of Washington from its inception to the then-present day. The Civil War defenses of Washington figure prominently in the later portions of the book, and he uses the state of Fort Stanton as an example of what had become of the forts a decade after they had been built.
"I climbed the high hills one day on the other side, and pushing up by-paths through bramble and laurel, gained the ramparts of old Fort Stanton. How old already seem those fortresses, drawing their amphitheatre around the Capital City! Here the scarf had fallen off in places; the abatis had been wrenched out for firewood; even the solid log platforms, where late the great guns stood on tiptoe, had yielded to the farmer's lever, and made, perhaps, joists for his barn, and piles for his bridge. The solid stone portals opening into bomb-proof and magazine, still remained strong and mortised, but down in the battery and dark subterranean quarters the smell was rank, the floor was full of mushrooms; a dog had littered in the innermost powder magazine, and showed her fangs as I held a lighted match before me advancing. Still the old names and numbers were painted upon the huge doorways beneath the inner parapet: 'Officers quarters, 21,' 'Mess, 12,' 'Cartridge Box, 7.'"
The fort remained in a constantly deteriorating condition until 1919, when the Commissioners of the District of Columbia pushed Congress to pass a bill that would consolidate the aging forts into a "Fort Circle" system of parks that would ring the growing city of Washington. As envisioned by the Commissioners, the Fort Circle would be a green ring of parks outside the city, owned by the government, and connected by a "Fort Drive" road in order to allow Washington's citizens to easily escape the confines of the capital. However, the bill allowing for the purchase of the former forts, which had been turned back over to private ownership after the war, failed to pass both the House of Representatives and Senate.
Despite that failure, in 1925 a similar bill passed both the House and Senate, which allowed for the creation of the National Capital Parks Commission (NCPC) to oversee the construction of a Fort Circle of parks similar to that proposed in 1919. The NCPC was authorized to begin purchasing land occupied by the old forts, much of which had been turned over to private ownership following the war. Records indicate that the site of Fort Stanton was purchased for a total of $56,000 in 1926. The duty of purchasing land and constructing the fort parks changed hands several times throughout the 1920s and 1930s, eventually culminating with the Department of the Interior and the National Park Service taking control of the project in the 1940s.
During the Great Depression, crews from the Civilian Conservation Corps embarked on projects to improve and maintain the parks, which were still under the control of District authority at that time. At Fort Stanton, CCC members trimmed trees and cleared brush, as well as maintaining and constructing park buildings. Various non-park buildings were also discussed for the land. The City Department of Education proposed building a school on park land, while authorities from the local water utility suggested the construction of a water tower would be suitable for the tall hills of the park. The Second World War interrupted these plans, and post-war budget cuts instituted by President Harry S. Truman postponed the construction of the Fort Drive once more. Though land for the parks had mostly been purchased, construction of the ring road connecting them was pushed back again and again. Other projects managed to find funding, however. In 1949, President Truman approved a supplemental appropriation request of $175,000 to construct "a swimming pool and associated facilities" at Fort Stanton Park.
By 1963, when President John F. Kennedy began pushing Congress to finally build the Fort Circle Drive, many in Washington and the National Park Service were openly questioning whether the plan had outgrown its usefulness. After all, by this time, Washington had grown past the ring of forts that had protected it a century earlier, and city surface roads already connected the parks, albeit not in as linear a route as envisioned. The plan to link Fort Stanton Park with other fort parks via a grand drive was quietly dropped in the years that followed.
Not all the land that made up the site of Fort Stanton was converted to public park land. In 1920, local African-American Catholics constructed Our Lady of Perpetual Help church on land formerly owned by Dr. J.C. Norwood, a local physician. After the remaining grounds of the fort were purchased in 1925, nearby residents reportedly "walked family cows to Fort Stanton Park to graze before the school bell rang." Today, the church still stands adjacent to the grounds of the park. The Washington D.C. Department of Parks and National Parks Service jointly manage the 67 acres of park land that stand on the site of the fort today. D.C. authorities manage approximately 11 acres that contain a recreation center and ball fields, while the National Parks Service manages the remaining acreage, which is mostly wooded and contains the remains of forts Stanton and Ricketts. The area also is site to the Anacostia Museum, a Smithsonian Institution facility devoted to the history of African-Americans.
Fort Totten, District of Columbia:
Fort Totten is a park and neighborhood in northeast Washington, D.C.. The neighborhood is bordered by N Capitol St to the west, Riggs Rd NE to the north, the Red Line tracks to the east, and Hawaii Ave NE to the south. It is named after a Civil War-era fort. The Fort Totten Metro station is named for it. All are named for long-time General Joseph Gilbert Totten, the Chief Engineer of the antebellum United States Army.
Fort Totten was a medium-sized fort, a seven-sided polygon with a perimeter of 270 yards (250 m). It was located atop a ridge along the main road from Washington to Silver Spring, Maryland, about three miles (5 km) north of the Capitol, and a half-mile from the Military Asylum or Soldiers' Home, where President Abraham Lincoln spent his summers while president. The fort was of typical design for its time, with earth walls some 15 feet (4.6 m) thick and 8 feet (2.4 m) high. Outside the walls (or "ramparts") was a large ditch or dry moat over seven feet deep and twelve feet wide, and outside that was a broad cleared area surrounding a barrier of tree branches, brambles and general debris (or abatis). Along the inner surface of the wall were gun platforms for several types of cannon, some firing over the parapet, others firing through openings in it, and a banquette, a kind of shelf on which soldiers could stand to fire over the wall.
Foxhall Village, District of Columbia:
Foxhall Village is an affluent neighborhood in Washington, D.C., bordered by Reservoir Road on the north side and Foxhall Road on the west and south sides. Glover-Archibold Park makes up the eastern border. The first homes were constructed along Reservoir Road and Greenwich Park Way in the mid-1920s. By the end of December, 1927, some 150 homes had been erected, and the community given the name of Foxhall Village.
Foxhall is mostly residential. Architecturally Foxhall is distinct, because the vast majority of the homes are a brick Tudor style. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007.
Friendship Heights, District of Columbia:
Friendship Heights is a residential neighborhood in northwest Washington, D.C. and southern Montgomery County, Maryland. Though its borders are not clearly defined, Friendship Heights consists roughly of the neighborhoods and commercial areas around Wisconsin Avenue north of Fessenden Street NW and Tenleytown to Somerset Terrace and Willard Avenue in Maryland, and from River Road in the west to Reno Road and 41st Street in the east. Within Maryland west of Wisconsin Avenue is the so-called "Village of Friendship Heights," technically a special taxation district.
The portion in the District of Columbia lies in Ward 3, represented by ANCs 3E03 and 3E04. It is often considered to be part of Chevy Chase, DC; The most substantial commercial aspects are the shopping plazas near the intersection of Wisconsin and Western Avenues. Found here are many department stores, as well as numerous boutiques, day spas, a multiplex cinema and other services which cater to the residents as well as visitors to the area. The area also features a variety of moderate and discount chains.
The neighborhood also supports a number of offices, including the corporate headquarters of insurance giant GEICO (originally Government Employees Insurance Company) and the Ritz-Carlton hotel chain, and a concentration of broadcast media including the studios of WMAL, WMAL-FM, and WTTG (Fox 5). As a result, heavy traffic is not uncommon.
The Friendship Heights Station on the Red Line of the Washington Metro system serves the area, and the station is also a major connecting depot for area bus services. Streetcar service, which once connected the neighborhood to Georgetown, was abandoned in 1960.
Since the late 1990s, development has accelerated in the neighborhood, notably the construction of Chase Tower on Willard Avenue, a new Chevy Chase Center replacing the older 1980s-era complex of the same name, and new condominiums on the site of the former Washington Women's Clinic.
The area contains a Bloomingdale's department store as part of a larger redevelopment of the block. The new development, called Wisconsin Place, features residential and office space, in addition to a Whole Foods Market and boutiques.
District of Columbia Public Schools operates public schools.
District of Columbia Public Library operates the Tenley-Friendship Interim Library.
Gateway, District of Columbia:
Gateway is the name of a small industrial and residential neighborhood in Northeast Washington, D.C. It is bounded by New York Avenue NE to the south and southeast, Bladensburg Road to the west, and South Dakota Avenue to the northeast. Gateway is across New York Avenue from the U.S. National Arboretum.
The neighborhood takes its name from the period when the Washington Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ran in place of present-day New York Avenue. The eastern edge of the District of Columbia was occupied by the military jurisdiction of Fort Lincoln, but Gateway (immediately southwest of Fort Lincoln) was the first civilian area of the District through which trains would pass.
Gateway is home to the printing press facility for the Washington Times newspaper.
Georgetown, District of Columbia:
Georgetown is a historic neighborhood, commercial, and entertainment district located in northwest Washington, D.C., situated along the Potomac River. Founded in 1751, the port of Georgetown predated the establishment of the federal district and the City of Washington by 40 years. Georgetown remained a separate municipality until 1871, when the United States Congress created a new consolidated government for the whole District of Columbia. A separate act passed in 1895 specifically repealed Georgetown's remaining local ordinances and renamed Georgetown's streets to conform with those in the City of Washington.
The primary commercial corridors of Georgetown are the intersection of Wisconsin Avenue & M Street, which contain high-end shops, bars, restaurants, and the Georgetown Park enclosed shopping mall, as well as the Washington Harbour waterfront restaurants at K Street, NW, between 30th and 31st Streets. Georgetown is home to the main campus of Georgetown University and numerous other landmarks, such as the Volta Bureau and the Old Stone House, the oldest unchanged building in Washington. The embassies of France, Mongolia, Sweden, Thailand, and Ukraine are located in Georgetown.
Situated on the fall line, Georgetown was the farthest point upstream that oceangoing boats could navigate the Potomac River. In 1632, English fur trader Henry Fleet documented a Native American village of the Nacotchtank people called Tohoga on the site of present-day Georgetown and established trade there. The area was then part of the Province of Maryland, a British colony.
George Gordon constructed a tobacco inspection house along the Potomac in approximately 1745. The site was already a tobacco trading post when the inspection house was built. Warehouses, wharves, and other buildings were then constructed around the inspection house, and it quickly became a small community. It did not take long before Georgetown grew into a thriving port, facilitating trade and shipments goods from colonial Maryland.
In 1751, the legislature of the Province of Maryland authorized the purchase of 60 acres (240,000 m2) of land from Gordon and George Beall at the price of £280. A survey of the town was completed in February 1752. Since Georgetown was founded during the reign of George II of Great Britain, some speculate that the town was named after him. Another theory is that the town was named after its founders, George Gordon and George Beall. The Maryland Legislature formally issued a charter and incorporated the town in 1789. Robert Peter, an early area merchant in the tobacco trade, became Georgetown's first mayor in 1790.
Col. John Beatty established the first church in Georgetown, a Lutheran church on High Street. Stephen Bloomer Balch established a Presbyterian Church in 1784. In 1795, the Trinity Catholic Church was built, along with a parish school-house. St. John's Episcopal Church was built in 1803. Banks in Georgetown included the Farmers and Mechanics Bank, which was established in 1814. Other banks included the Bank of Washington, Patriotic Bank, Bank of the Metropolis, and the Union and Central Banks of Georgetown.
Newspapers in Georgetown included the Republican Weekly Ledger, which was the first paper, started in 1790. The Sentinel was first published in 1796 by Green, English & Co. Charles C. Fulton began publishing the Potomac Advocate, which was started by Thomas Turner. Other newspapers in Georgetown included the Georgetown Courier and the Federal Republican. William B. Magruder, the first postmaster, was appointed on February 16, 1790, and in 1795, a custom house was established on Water Street. General James M. Lingan served as the first collector of the port.
In the 1790s, City Tavern, the Union Tavern, and the Columbian Inn opened and were popular throughout the 19th century. Of these taverns, only the City Tavern remains today, as a private social club (the City Tavern Club) located near the corner of Wisconsin Avenue and M Street.
George Washington frequented Georgetown, including Suter's Tavern where he worked out many land deals from there to acquire land for the new Federal City. A key figure in the land deals was a local merchant named Benjamin Stoddert, who arrived in Georgetown in 1783. He had previously served as Secretary to the Board of War under the Articles of Confederation. Stoddert partnered with General Uriah Forrest to become an original proprietor of the Potomac Company.
Stoddert and other Potomac landowners agreed to a land transfer deal to the federal government at a dinner at Forrest's home in Georgetown on March 28, 1791. Stoddert bought land within the boundaries of the federal district, some of it at the request of Washington for the government, and some on speculation. He also purchased stock in the federal government under Hamilton's assumption-of-debt plan. The speculative purchases were not, however, profitable and caused Stoddert much difficulty before his appointment as Secretary of the Navy to John Adams. Stoddert was rescued from his debts with the help of William Marbury, later of Marbury v. Madison fame, and also a Georgetown resident. He ultimately owned Halcyon House at the corner of 34th and Prospect Streets. The Forrest-Marbury House on M Street is currently the embassy of Ukraine.
After the establishment of the federal capital, Georgetown became an independent municipal government within the District of Columbia, along with the City of Washington, the City of Alexandria, and the newly created County of Washington and County of Alexandria (now Arlington County, Virginia).
By the 1820s, the Potomac River had become silted up and was not navigable up to Georgetown. Construction of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal began in July 1828, to link Georgetown to Harper's Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia). The canal was completed on October 10, 1850, at a cost $77,041,586. The canal turned out not to be profitable, never living up to expectations with construction of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.
The Canal nonetheless provided an economic boost for Georgetown. In the 1820s and 1830s, Georgetown was an important shipping center. Tobacco and other goods were transferred between the canal and shipping on the Potomac River. As well, salt was imported from Europe, and sugar and molasses were imported from the West Indies. These shipping industries were later superseded by coal and flour industries, which flourished with the C & O Canal providing cheap power for mills and other industry. In 1862, the Washington and Georgetown Railroad Company began a horsecar line running along M Street in Georgetown and Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, easing travel between the two cities.
The municipal governments of Georgetown and the City of were formally revoked by Congress effective June 1, 1871, at which point its governmental powers were vested within the District of Columbia. The streets in Georgetown were renamed in 1895 to conform to the street names in use in Washington.
By the late 19th century, flour milling and other industries in Georgetown were declining, in part due to the fact that the canals and other waterways continually silted up. Nathaniel Michler and S.T. Abert led efforts to dredge the channels and remove rocks around the Georgetown harbor, though these were temporary solutions and Congress showed little interest in the issue. An 1890 flood and expansion of the railroads brought destitution to the C&O Canal, and Georgetown's waterfront became more industrialized, with narrow alleys, warehouses, and apartment dwellings which lacked plumbing or electricity. Shipping trade vanished between the Civil War and World War I. As a result, many older homes were preserved relatively unchanged.
In 1915, the Buffalo Bridge (on Q Street) opened and connected this part of Georgetown with the rest of the city east of Rock Creek Park. Soon thereafter, new construction of large apartment buildings began on the edge of Georgetown. In the early 1920s, John Ihlder led efforts to take advantage of new zoning laws to get restrictions enacted on construction in Georgetown. A 1933 study by Horace Peaslee and Allied Architects laid out ideas for how Georgetown could be preserved.
The C & O Canal, then owned by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, formally ceased operations in March 1924. After severe flooding in 1936, B & O Railroad sold the canal to the National Park Service in October 1938. The waterfront area retained its industrial character in the first half of the 20th century. Georgetown was home to a lumber yard, a cement works, the Washington Flour mill, and a meat rendering plant, with incinerator smokestacks and a power generating plant for the old Capital Traction streetcar system, located at the foot of Wisconsin Avenue, which closed in 1935, and was demolished in October 1968. In 1949, the city constructed the Whitehurst Freeway, an elevated highway above K Street, to allow motorists entering the District over the Key Bridge to bypass Georgetown entirely on their way downtown.
In 1950, Public Law 808 was passed, establishing the historic district of "Old Georgetown." The law required that the United States Commission of Fine Arts be consulted on any alteration, demolition, or building construction within the historic district.
Georgetown is one of the more affluent neighborhoods in Washington and home to many of the politicians and lobbyists. Georgetown's landmark waterfront district's was further revitalized in 2003 and includes upscale hotels such as a Westin, a Ritz-Carlton, and a Four Seasons. Georgetown's highly traveled commercial district is home to a variety of specialty retailers and fashionable boutiques.
Thomas Jefferson lived for some time in Georgetown while serving as vice president under President John Adams. Georgetown was home to Francis Scott Key who arrived as a young lawyer in 1808 and resided on M Street. Dr. William Beanes, a relative of Key, captured the rear guard of the British Army while it was burning Washington during the War of 1812. When the mass of the army retreated, they retrieved their imprisoned guard and took Dr. Beanes as a captive to their fleet near Baltimore. Key went to the fleet to request the release of Beanes, was held until the bombardment of Fort McHenry was completed, and gained the inspiration for "The Star-Spangled Banner".
Alexander Graham Bell's earliest switching office for the Bell System was located on a site just below the C&O Canal, and it remains in use as a phone facility to this day. Bell originally moved to Georgetown due to the numerous legal hearings related to telephone patents, but then later created the Volta Laboratory and stayed on due to the area's profusion of scientific and technical organizations which became established in the region.
John F. Kennedy lived in Georgetown in the 1950s as both a Congressman and a Senator. Parties hosted by his wife, Jackie, and many other Georgetown hostesses drew political elites away from downtown clubs and hotels or the upper 16th Street corridor. Kennedy went to his presidential inauguration from his townhouse at 3307 N Street in January 1961.
Current residents include Massachusetts Senator John Kerry, past Washington Post Editor Ben Bradlee, Washington Post Watergate reporter and current assistant managing editor Bob Woodward, former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, and Montana Senator Max Baucus, among others.
Georgetown is bounded by the Potomac River on the south, Rock Creek to the east, Burleith and Glover Park to the north, with Georgetown University on the west end of the neighborhood. Much of Georgetown is surrounded by parkland and green space that serve as buffers from development in adjacent neighborhoods, and provide recreation. Rock Creek Park, the Oak Hill Cemetery, Montrose Park and Dumbarton Oaks are located along the north and east edge of Georgetown, east of Wisconsin Avenue. The neighborhood is situated on bluffs overlooking the Potomac River. As a result, there are some rather steep grades on streets running north-south. The famous "Exorcist steps" connecting M Street to Prospect Street were necessitated by the hilly terrain of the neighborhood.
The primary commercial corridors of Georgetown are M Street and Wisconsin Avenue, whose high fashion stores draw large numbers of tourists as well as local shoppers year-round. There is also the Washington Harbour complex on K Street, on the waterfront, featuring outdoor bars and restaurants popular for viewing boat races. Between M and K Streets runs the historic Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, today plied only by tour boats; adjacent trails are popular with joggers or strollers.
Canal Square Building, 1054 31st Street, NW, former home of the Tabulating Machine Company, a direct precursor of IBM.
The City Tavern Club, built in 1796, is the oldest commercial structure in Washington, D.C.
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, begun in 1829.
Dumbarton Oaks, 3101 R Street, NW, former home of John C. Calhoun, U.S. vice president, where the United Nations charter was outlined in 1944.
Evermay, built in 1801 and restored by F. Lammot Belin.
The Forrest-Marbury House, 3350 M Street, NW, where George Washington met with local landowners to acquire the District of Columbia. Currently the Embassy of the Ukraine.
Georgetown Lutheran Church was the first church in Georgetown, dates back to 1769. The current church structure, the fourth on the site, was built in 1914.
Georgetown Presbyterian Church was established in 1780 by Reverend Stephen Bloomer Balch. Formerly located on Bridge Street (M Street), the current church building was constructed in 1881 on P Street.
Healy Hall on Georgetown's campus, built in Flemish Romanesque style from 1877 to 1879 was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987.
Mount Zion United Methodist Church and Mount Zion Cemetery.
The Oak Hill Cemetery, a gift of William Wilson Corcoran whose Gothic Revival chapel and gates were designed by James Renwick, is the resting place of Abraham Lincoln's son Willie and other figures.
The Old Stone House, built in 1765, located on M Street is the oldest original structure in Washington, D.C.
Tudor Place and Dumbarton Court.
The Volta Laboratory and Bureau, created by Alexander Graham Bell as his first formal research laboratory, the profits from which were used to create a research and educational institution devoted to serving the deaf, which operates today as the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, also known as the 'AG Bell'.
Georgetown's transportation importance was defined by its location just below the fall line of the Potomac River. The Aqueduct Bridge (and later, the Francis Scott Key Bridge) connected Georgetown with Virginia. Before the Aqueduct Bridge was built, a ferry service owned by John Mason connected Georgetown to Virginia. In 1788, a bridge was constructed over Rock Creek to connect Bridge Street (M Street) with the Federal City.
Georgetown was located at the juncture of the Alexandria Canal and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. The C&O Canal, begun in Georgetown in 1829, reached Cumberland, Maryland in 1851, and operated until 1924. Wisconsin Avenue is on the alignment of the tobacco hogshead rolling road from rural Maryland, and the Federal Customs House was located on 31st Street (now utilized as the post office). The city's oldest bridge, the sandstone bridge which carries Wisconsin Avenue over the C&O Canal, and which dates to 1831, was reopened to traffic on May 16, 2007, after a $3.5 million restoration. It is the only remaining bridge of five constructed in Georgetown by the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Company.
Several streetcar line and interurban railways interchanged passengers in Georgetown. The station was located in front of the stone wall on Canal Road (currently occupied by a gas station) adjacent to the Exorcist steps, and the former D.C. Transit car barn at the end of the Key Bridge. Four suburban Virginia lines, connecting through Rosslyn, Virginia, provided links from the D.C. streetcar network to Mount Vernon, Falls Church, Great Falls, Fairfax, Vienna, Leesburg, and Purcellville. Streetcar operations in Washington, D.C. ended January 28, 1962. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad built a branch line from Silver Spring, Maryland to Water Street in Georgetown in an abortive attempt to construct a southern connection to Alexandria, Virginia. It served as an industrial line, shipping coal to a General Services Administration power plant on K Street (now razed) until 1985. The abandoned right-of-way has since been converted into the Capital Crescent Trail – a rails-to-trails route – and the power plant into a condo.
There is no Metro station in Georgetown. The planners of the Metro never seriously considered locating a station in the neighborhood, primarily due to the engineering issues presented by the extremely steep grade from the Potomac River (under which the subway tunnel would run) to the center of Georgetown. Some Georgetown residents concerned about outsiders entering their wealthy neighborhood wrote letters against a station, but no serious plans for a station were ever drafted in the first place. Since the Metro's opening, there have been occasional discussions about adding an additional subway line and tunnel under the Potomac to service the area. Three stations are located roughly one mile (1.6 km) from the center of Georgetown: Rosslyn (across the Key Bridge in Arlington), Foggy Bottom-GWU, and Dupont Circle. Georgetown is served by the 30-series, D-Series, and G2 Metrobuses, as well as the DC Circulator.
The main campus of Georgetown University is located on the western edge of the Georgetown neighborhood. Father John Carroll founded Georgetown University as a Jesuit private university in 1789, though its roots extend back to 1634. Although the school struggled financially in its early years, Georgetown expanded into a branched university after the American Civil War under the leadership of university president Patrick Francis Healy. As of 2007, the university has 6,853 undergraduate students and 4,490 graduate students on the main campus.
The main campus is just over 100 acres (0.4 km²) in area and includes 58 buildings, student residences capable of accommodating 80 percent of undergraduates, various athletic facilities, and the medical school. Most buildings employ collegiate Gothic architecture and Georgian brick architecture. Campus green areas include fountains, a cemetery, large clusters of flowers, groves of trees, and open quadrangles. The main campus has traditionally centered on Dahlgren Quadrangle, although Red Square has replaced it as the focus of student life. Healy Hall, built in Flemish Romanesque style from 1877 to 1879, is the architectural gem of Georgetown's campus, and is a National Historic Landmark.
Throughout the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries the concentration of wealth in Georgetown sparked the growth of many university-preparatory schools in and around the neighborhood. One of the first schools was the Columbian Academy on N Street, which was established in 1781 with Reverend Stephen Balch serving as the headmaster.
Private schools currently located in Georgetown include Georgetown Visitation Preparatory School, while nearby is the eponymous Georgetown Day School. Georgetown Preparatory School, while founded in Georgetown, moved in 1915 to its present location several miles north of Georgetown in Montgomery County.
District of Columbia Public Schools operates area public schools, including Hyde Elementary School on O Street. Hardy Middle School and Wilson High School both serve Georgetown.
Several movies have been filmed in Georgetown, including 1973 horror film The Exorcist, which was set in the neighborhood and partially filmed there. In the movie's climactic scene, the protagonist is hurled down the 75-step staircase at the end of 36th Street NW, which connects Prospect Street with M Street below. The staircase has come to be known as the "Exorcist steps". A false front was built onto the house at the top of the steps so that the bedroom windows would immediately overlook the steps. The real structure is considerably set-back.
The 1985 Brat Pack film St. Elmo's Fire was set in Georgetown, though the campus fraternity row portions were filmed at the University of Maryland campus in College Park. (Like most Jesuit colleges, Georgetown University does not recognize fraternities or sororities, though several exist.)
The 1987 film No Way Out featured a Georgetown Metro stop as a plot device, even though no such station exists; the subway station shots were filmed in Baltimore, Maryland. Chase scenes for the film were shot on the Whitehurst Freeway. Other films with scenes in Georgetown are The Man with One Red Shoe (1985, an early Tom Hanks film), Chances Are (1989), Timecop (1994), True Lies (1994), Dave (1993), The Jackal (1997, private homes), Enemy of the State (1998), Spy Games (2001), Dick (1999, C&O Canal), Election (1999), Minority Report (2002), The Recruit (2003), The Girl Next Door (2004), Wedding Crashers (2005), and Transformers (2007). Although Burn After Reading (2008) featured Georgetown prominently, filming was done in Brooklyn, New York.
The television series The West Wing occasionally filmed scenes in and around Georgetown.
Hawthorne, District of Columbia:
Hawthorne is a neighborhood in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C., wedged between Rock Creek Park and Montgomery County, Maryland. It is entirely residential, with no commercial zoning whatsoever, and is occupied by 1950s ramblers and split-level homes on large parcels of land — suburban and separated from the roar of life in the nation's capital.
Hillcrest, District of Columbia:
Hillcrest is a neighborhood in the southeast quadrant of Washington, D.C., United States. Hillcrest is located in Ward 7, east of the Anacostia River. Hillcrest is a rather affluent and well-kept neighborhood. Former mayor Marion Barry is a former resident. Current residents include Mayor Vincent C. Gray.
Hillcrest is bounded by Pennsylvania Avenue SE to the northeast, Southern Avenue to the southeast, and 32nd Street to the west. Branch Avenue is its main thoroughfare. Hillcrest is a residential neighborhood, and about one third of its area is occupied by Fort Dupont Park.
Kingman Park, District of Columbia:
Kingman Park is a residential neighborhood in the Northeast quadrant of Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States. Kingman Park's boundaries are 15th Street NE to the west; C Street SE to the south; Benning Road to the north; and Anacostia Park to the east. The neighborhood is composed primarily of two-story brick rowhouses, most of which were built when the neighborhood was founded in 1928. Kingman Park is named after Brigadier General Dan Christie Kingman, the former head of the United States Army Corps of Engineers (for whom nearby Kingman Island and Kingman Lake are also named).
Prior to the 1920s, Kingman Park was a largely uninhabited, wooded area located near the D.C. city dump. The area was originally on the shores of the Anacostia River. Between 1860 and the late 1880s, large mudflats ("the Anacostia flats") formed on both banks of the Anacostia River due to deforestation and the heavy erosion it caused. At this time, the city allowed its sewage to pour untreated into the Anacostia. Marsh grass began growing in the flats, trapping the sewage and leading public health experts to conclude that the flats were unsanitary. Health officials also feared that the flats were a prime breeding ground of malaria- and yellow fever-carrying mosquitoes. By 1876, a large mudflat had formed just south of where Benning Bridge is today, and another, 740 feet (230 m) wide, had developed just south of the former flat. By 1883, a stream named "Succabel's Gut" traversed the upper flat and another dubbed "Turtle Gut" the lower, and both flats hosted substantial populations of American lotus, lily pads, and wild rice. In 1898, officials with the United States Army Corps of Engineers and the District of Columbia convinced the United States Congress that the Anacostia River should be dredged to create a more commercially viable channel that would enhance the local economy as well as provide land where factories or warehouses might be built. The material dredged from the river would be used to build up the flats and turn them into dry land, eliminating the public health dangers they caused. In 1901, the McMillan Commission (a body established by the United States Senate to advise the Congress and District of Columbia on ways to improve the parks, monuments, memorials, and infrastructure of the city as well as plan for urban renewal, economic growth, and expansion of the federal government) concluded that commercial land was not needed and proposed turning the reclaimed flats into parkland. The D.C. government agreed in 1905, the United States Commission of Fine Arts (a federal advisory agency with review authority over the design and aesthetics of projects within Washington, D.C.) and the Army Corps of Engineers concurred in 1914, and the National Capital Park and Planning Commission signed on (belatedly) to the park plan in 1928. Most of the reclaimed mudflats were subsequently declared to be parkland and named Anacostia Water Park (now Anacostia Park) in 1919. This left the Kingman Park neighborhood cut off from the Anacostia River.
In 1805, local landowner Benjamin Stoddert built a wooden bridge over the Anacostia River at the present site of Benning Bridge. The bridge was sold to Thomas Ewell, who in the 1820s sold it to William Benning. Thereafter the structure was known as Benning's Bridge (or Benning Bridge). The wooden bridge was rebuilt several times after 1805. This included construction of a steel bridge in 1892, and the current beam-concrete pier bridge in 1934.
Noted D.C. real estate developer Charles Sager began constructing homes on the vacant land that is now Kingman Park in 1927. The first 40 homes in the area, built on 24th Street NE, were sold in July 1928. Sager found that white homebuyers were not interested in living in the area, so he focused on selling homes to African Americans. Thus, Kingman Park became the first D.C. neighborhood of single-family houses to be developed specifically for blacks. By 1931, there were 230 homes in the area. Development included 22nd through 25 Streets NE, between Benning Road and E Street SE.
A major boost to development in the area came with the construction of Charles E. Young Elementary School and Hugh M. Browne Junior High School. In May 1930, the District of Columbia Public Schools decided to construct one junior high, and one senior high, and four elementary schools in the city, including a "platoon school" for black children in northeast D.C. near Benning Road. Originally scheduled to be finished in November 1931, the need for the new school was so great that the school board pushed up the construction completion date by two months in November 1930. The new school was named for United States Army Colonel Charles E. Young, who was only the third black man to graduate from West Point, the first black U.S. national park superintendent, the first black man to achieve the rank of colonel in the U.S. Army, and the highest-ranking black officer in the Army at the time of his death in 1922. Young Elementary School opened on October 1, 1931, (delayed a month due to construction backlogs), and graduated its first class in January 1932. Efforts to open a junior high school for African American students in the Kingman Park area began around 1920, but it was not until 1930 that the D.C. public school system actually built one. Constructed adjacent to Young Elementary School, the new junior high was named for Hugh M. Browne, a Howard University professor and prominent educator. Browne Junior High School opened in May 1932, and was the first junior high school for black students in Northeast D.C.
The two new schools significantly boosted interest from homebuyers and development in the Kingman Park neighborhood. Sager announced plans in February 1931 to build another 350 homes in the neighborhood, more than doubling its existing size. The city also announced plans to build a new high school (in time, this became Spingarn High School) next to the Young and Browne schools. Additional houses were built in the late 1930s as sales took off.
Most of the area's first residents were middle class African American families whose head of household worked for the federal government. Most of the African Americans who moved to the neighborhood in the 1940s and 1950s were blacks leaving the Deep South during the Great Migration. The construction of Robert F. Kennedy Stadium in 1961 proved problematic for the neighborhood. The stadium lies directly east of Kingman Park, and soon after it opened residents began complaining about the immense amounts of traffic that flooded their streets, attendees at stadium events illegally parking on city streets, and excessive noise and trash.
Despite this problem with RFK Stadium, the Kingman Park neighborhood is notably stable, with many families having owned the same home for several generations. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the neighborhood suffered a downturn as younger people grew up and left the area and homeowners (the majority of whom were now senior citizens) found themselves without access to public transportation or public services (such as grocery stores and pharmacies). In 1991, the neighborhood had a population of about 10,000 residents.
Kingman Park is currently part of both Ward 6 and Ward 7. Prior to 2001, all of Kingman Park had been part of Ward 6. But with neighborhoods east of the Anacostia River losing population while areas west of it gained voters, the D.C. City Council was forced to redraw each ward's boundaries in order to maintain equal populations. In June 2001, the D.C. City Council adopted and Mayor Anthony A. Williams signed the "Ward Redistricting Act," which transferred 1,840 residents of Kingman Park from Ward 6 to Ward 7. Many Kingman Park residents were very vocal about the change (which extended Ward 7 west of the Anacostia River for the first time). But these protests were not successful, and the Kingman Park voters were added to Ward 7. The Kingman Park Civic Association sued, claiming the city's action violated the federal Voting Rights Act. The Kingman Park voters lost their suit when the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit held in 2003 that the District's actions did not violate federal law. Kingman Park residents filed a second lawsuit in District of Columbia (e.g., state) court, claiming that the city's actions violated the "District of Columbia Election Act." But the District of Columbia Court of Appeals ruled against them in this second suit in 2007.
Kingman Park residents are well known for their extensive civic action and opposition to changes which might degrade their neighborhood. In the early 1970s, the Washington Metro proposed allowing the planned Orange/Blue Line to come above-ground after it left the proposed Stadium–Armory Station. In addition to the Stadium-Armory stop south of RFK Stadium, Metro also proposed an "Oklahoma Avenue Station" with a large parking lot north of RFK on Oklahoma Avenue NE. Residents on Oklahoma Avenue NE and members of the Kingman Park Civic Association bitterly opposed the parking lot, fearing heavy traffic and streets clogged with non-residents parking illegally in front of their homes. The Civic Association demanded that the station be placed underground, a request Metro opposed because it would cost $40 million. Residents also demanded that Metro cancel the parking lot. Residents began heavily lobbying District and federal officials against the parking lot, and in 1977, Metro finally canceled all plans for an Oklahoma Avenue Station—marking the only time citizen groups in the District of Columbia were able to get an entire station scrapped.
In 1975, federal, regional, and city transportation planners proposed an extension to I-695/Southeast Freeway to be called the "Barney Circle Freeway" to help alleviate the problems created by the failure to complete the Inner Loop. The freeway would extend I-695 past its existing terminus at the Barney traffic circle, and travel along the western bank of the Anacostia River (through Anacostia Park) to East Capitol Street and Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium. A new bridge over the Anacostia River at Kingman Island would provide vehicles easy access to the Anacostia Freeway. But protests from Kingman Park and other residents of Capitol Hill forced the District of Columbia to reduce the number of lanes on the Barney Circle Freeway to two from four. The protests and legal and regulatory challenges to the proposed freeway did not end, however, and by 1992 the freeway's cost had ballooned to $160 million and it remained unbuilt. In 1993, D.C. Mayor Sharon Pratt Kelly gave her approval for construction to begin. But construction was delayed yet again when the Kingman Park Civic Association, Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund, Anacostia Watershed Society, Citizens Committee to Stop It Again, D.C. Federation of Civic Associations, and other organizations threatened to sue unless the city scaled back the freeway even further. The groups could not reach an agreement with the city, and filed suit to stop construction in May 1994. The groups claimed that federal and city officials had covered up how much hazardous waste lay under the construction sites; that the roads and bridge would add pollution, traffic, and noise to existing neighborhoods; that construction and runoff from the roadway would pollute the Anacostia River; that the road would destroy much-needed city parkland; and that the freeway would only benefit out-of-state commuters and affluent Capitol Hill residents while harming the poorer, African American neighborhoods in Anacostia. The D.C. City Council, which had the final say on whether to proceed with the project or not, bowed to neighborhood opposition and voted overwhelmingly to reject the project.
Another major battle occurred in the late 1980s and early 1990s over plans to build a new football stadium next to RFK. Talks between the Washington Redskins football team and the D.C. government over whether to build a new stadium (and keep the team from moving to Maryland) began in 1988, and almost immediately Kingman Park residents protested that they had not been consulted about the various stadium design proposals. Residents were angered that their concerns over existing parking and traffic problems at the stadium had not been addressed, and they began lobbying city and federal officials, picketing, and protesting at public meetings. Economic, property, tax, and traffic studies showed citizens of Kingman Park would suffer from a new stadium. In part because of the opposition of Kingman Park residents (who flooded Congress with visits and lobbying efforts), the Redskins organization was unable to obtain federal approval for the plan and moved to Maryland.
Two years after the stadium battle, Kingman Park residents began protesting plans to build a large theme park for children on nearby Kingman Island. The Children's Island theme park had been proposed since the 1960s, but had never moved past the planning stage. However, after the federal government transferred Kingman Island and nearby Heritage Island to the city in 1995, theme park development seemed to move forward much more rapidly. Once again, Kingman Park residents were worried about traffic and parking issues, as well as the possible environmental degradation construction might have on Anacostia Park and the Anacostia River. They began lobbying city and federal officials heavily against the theme park, and participated in lawsuits to force the developers to assess any environmental damage the park might cause. Children's Island was cancelled in 1999 when the District of Columbia Financial Control Board voted to kill the development as too costly.
Kingman Park residents have also been deeply concerned about environmental damage to the nearby Anacostia River. In 1998, the Kingman Park Civic Association sued the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) over the agency's refusal to order local communities to stop pouring untreated sewage and storm wastewater into the Anacostia River. In Kingman Park Civic Association v. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 84 F.Supp.2d 1 (D. D.C. 1999), the EPA agreed to a timetable under which all communities adjacent to the river would be forced to treat their sewage or suffer significant fines and penalties.
Kingman Park residents also protested a major automobile race at RFK Stadium in 2002 and 2003. The dispute began in 2002, when D.C. officials approved a proposal to utilize RFK Stadium's parking lots for an American Le Mans Series racing event to be held that year. Kingman Park residents were again concerned about traffic and parking, but also about the excessive noise levels the lengthy event would create. Citizens were outraged when they learned that District officials had ignored laws and regulations requiring an environmental impact assessment for the race, and that Le Mans officials had lied to the city about noise levels. Kingman Park residents were further angered when American Le Mans racing officials reneged on a promise to remove the Jersey barriers outlining the racecourse from stadium parking lots, leaving the unsightly structures behind and preventing the lots from being used for parking. When the American Le Mans organization tried to hold a second race at RFK in 2003, outraged Kingman Park residents successfully forced D.C. officials to cancel the city's 10-year lease with the company (no more races were ever held).
More recently, residents in the neighborhood opposed the construction of a boarding school to be built by the SEED Foundation. Residents also opposed the use of fireworks at RFK Stadium when it reopened for use by the Washington Nationals baseball team. The team had proposed setting off fireworks over the stadium after each home game. Kingman Park residents were upset about the noise, smoke, and debris the fireworks would cause, as well as the possibility of fire in their neighborhood. The residents of the neighborhood successfully prevented the team from using any fireworks.
Logan Circle, District of Columbia:
Logan Circle is a traffic circle, neighborhood, and historic district in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C. The primarily residential neighborhood includes two historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and sites designated D.C. Historic Landmarks. It is the only major circle downtown that remains entirely residential.
During the Civil War, present-day Logan Circle was home to Camp Barker, former barracks converted into a refugee camp for newly freed slaves from nearby Virginia and Maryland. In the 1870s, streets, elm trees, and other amenities were installed by Washington Mayor Alexander Robey Shepherd, who encouraged the development of the area. Streetcar tracks were laid into what was then a very swampy area north of downtown Washington, to encourage development of the original Washington City Plan. As a result, the area saw development of successive blocks of Victorian row houses marketed to the upper middle class, which sought to give Washington the reputation, modeled after European capitals, of a city of broad boulevards and well-manicured parks. Many of the larger and more ornate homes came with carriage houses and attached servant's quarters, which were later converted to apartments and rooming houses as the upper middle class moved elsewhere.
Originally known as Iowa Circle, the park was renamed by Congress in 1930 in honor of John A. Logan, Commander of the Army of the Tennessee during the Civil War, Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic, and Representative and Senator for the state of Illinois, who lived at 4 Logan Circle from 1885 until his death the following year. At the center of the circle stands a monument in honor of Logan, a bronze equestrian statue sculpted by Franklin Simmons and a bronze statue base designed by architect Richard Morris Hunt. On April 9, 1901, the 25 feet (7.6 m) monument was dedicated by President William McKinley, Senator Chauncey Depew, and General Grenville M. Dodge.
In the early 20th century, 14th Street NW rose to prominence as a main shopping district for both black and white Washingtonians on the edge of downtown Washington D.C., and became known as an area for auto showrooms. Further north, "14th and U" became synonymous with a large African American community, later known as Shaw, encompassing parts of Logan Circle and U Street to the north. Segregation marked the emergence of this large area of well-preserved Victorian row houses as a predominately African-American community; the unofficial dividing line was 16th Street NW, several blocks to the west, with Logan Circle and its older homes sandwiched in between. During this period, the original Victorian homes in the area were subdivided into apartments, hostels, and rooming houses. The end of segregation saw a period of middle class flight from the area, punctuated by the 1968 Washington, D.C. riots, which devastated the 14th Street commercial corridor.
During the 1980s and 1990s, Logan Circle, although dominated by Victorian homes which had survived mostly untouched by redevelopment or riots, was considered by many unsafe due to overt drug use and prostitution that existed in the neighborhood. During this period, property values in the area increased, while issues of homelessness in the area came to the forefront; 14th Street, NW became widely viewed as Washington's red light district. It also became a haven for theater companies.
During the 2000s, the area gentrified and housing costs sharply increased after derelict buildings were torn down or remodeled. The commercial corridors along 14th Street and P Street underwent significant revitalization, and are now home to a variety of retailers, restaurants, art galleries, live theater, and nightlife venues such as Number Nine, a gay bar catering to the neighborhood's large LGBT population. A watershed event in the development of the neighborhood was the opening of a Whole Foods Market two blocks from Logan Circle in December 2000, on a site previously occupied by an abandoned service garage; it is now one of the chain's highest grossing markets. Gentrification in Logan Circle has resulted in a dramatic change of neighborhood demographics; since the 1990s, thousands of white young adults have moved into the neighborhood, while thousands of black adults have moved out of the neighborhood.
The Logan Circle neighborhood, situated between the Dupont Circle and Shaw neighborhoods, is bordered by S Street to the north, 10th Street to the east, 16th Street to the west, and M Street to the south. The traffic circle is the intersection of 13th Street, P Street, Rhode Island Avenue, and Vermont Avenue. The National Park Service maintains the land located within the traffic circle, a park measuring 360 feet (110 m) in diameter, furnished with wooden benches, decorative lampposts, an iron fence, and concrete sidewalks.
The Logan Circle Historic District is an eight-block area surrounding the circle, containing 135 late-19th-century residences designed predominantly in the Late Victorian and Richardsonian Romanesque styles of architecture. The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 30, 1972.
The former home of Mary McLeod Bethune, an African American educator, author, and civil rights leader who founded the National Council of Negro Women, is located at 1318 Vermont Avenue NW, one block south of the circle. The Second Empire-style building is a designated National Historic Site and houses the Mary McLeod Bethune Memorial Museum and the National Archives for Black Women's History.
In addition to the Logan Circle Historic District, the neighborhood includes the much larger Fourteenth Street Historic District, added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 9, 1994. The district's approximately 765 contributing properties are considered historically significant because they represent residential and commercial development resulting from one of the earliest streetcar lines in Washington, D.C., the 14th Street streetcar line, installed by the Capital Traction Company in the 1880s.
The oldest house of worship in the Fourteenth Street Historic District is Luther Place Memorial Church, built 1870–1873, an ELCA Lutheran church situated on the north side of Thomas Circle. Originally known as Memorial Evangelical Lutheran Church of Washington, D.C., the building was renamed in 1884 after a bronze statue of Martin Luther was installed on the church's property. Luther Place Memorial Church was added to the National Register of Historic Places on July 16, 1973.
The Gladstone and Hawarden, designed by architect George S. Cooper in 1900, are early examples of Washington, D.C.'s middle class apartment houses. Named for Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone and his estate Hawarden Castle, they are the first documented twin apartment buildings in Washington, D.C. The Gladstone and Hawarden were added to the National Register of Historic Places on September 7, 1994.
The District of Columbia Inventory of Historic Sites includes several properties in Logan Circle which are not listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Among them are the former residences of: Charles Manuel "Sweet Daddy" Grace, flamboyant founder of the United House of Prayer For All People; John A. Lankford, the first African American architect in Washington, D.C.; Belford Lawson, Jr., lead attorney in the landmark case New Negro Alliance v. Sanitary Grocery Co.; Alain LeRoy Locke, the first African American Rhodes Scholar and central figure in the Harlem Renaissance; Mary Jane Patterson, the first African American woman to earn a bachelor's degree; Ella Watson, subject of Gordon Parks's famous photograph American Gothic, Washington, D.C.; and James Lesesne Wells, noted graphic artist and longtime art instructor at Howard University.
The "Watermelon House" is an unofficial neighborhood landmark that features a watermelon mural painted on the side of a 19th-century residence.
Logan Circle has experienced remarkable growth since the mid-20th century, with a 2010 population of almost 8,000 people.
Logan Circle is the setting for Dinaw Mengestu's The Beautiful Things That Heaven Bears, a novel about an Ethiopian American struggling to start a new life in Washington, D.C.
Manor Park, District of Columbia:
Manor Park is a neighborhood in northwest Washington, D.C.. The 1967 National Capitol Planning Commission 1967 "District Communities" map indicates this neighborhood is roughly bounded by Fifth Street NW on the west, North Capitol Street and Blair Road on the east, Aspen Street to the north, and Missouri Avenue NW to the south. In 1940, the Manor Park Citizens Association deemed the boundaries to be Eighth Street, Whittier Street, North Capitol Street, and Concord Street (now Missouri Avenue).
Residential and not very suburban, Manor Park is largely characterized by rowhouses, detached and semi-detached houses, and small neighborhood businesses. Many of the homes were built in the 1920s. There are also swaths of park land cutting through the neighborhood, including Fort Slocum Park. In 1923, the Manor Park Citizens Association formed to improve the neighborhood. Manor Park had mostly dirt roads until at least 1926. For many years, Manor Park was not connected by road to Takoma until Fourth and Fifth Streets were extended to connect the two neighborhoods in 1926.
Mayfair, District of Columbia:
Mayfair is a residential neighborhood in Northeast Washington, D.C, United States., on the eastern bank of the Anacostia River. It is bounded by Jay Street NE on the north, Foote Street on the south, Kenilworth Terrace and Anacostia Avenue on the west, and Kenilworth Avenue on the east. Mayfair is encircled by Jay Street and Hayes St., which met at the back of the neighborhood. On the other side of Jay Street on Kenilworth Avenue is Bethesda New Life Gospel Church, who's pastor Bishop Iola B. Cunningham was the first African-American female to build a church from the ground up in the city. Famous singer and songwriter Marvin Gaye grew up in Mayfair housing projects. Nearby Schools include: Neval Thomas Elementary, located on Anacostia Avenue, Cesar Chavez Public Charter School For Public Policy (Parkside middle and high school), located on Hayes Street NE, and just over the bridge crossing I-295, Friendship Collegiate Academy, Carter G. Woodson Campus.
McLean Gardens, District of Columbia:
McLean Gardens is a residential neighborhood in Northwest Washington, D.C., bounded by Rodman Street NW to the north, Idaho Avenue to the south, Wisconsin Avenue to the east, and 39th Street NW to the west.
McLean Gardens is a 43-acre (170,000 m2) housing development — on the former estate of newspaper publisher John R. McLean — built in 1942 as temporary housing for wartime defense workers. In 1980, after a long battle by the tenants, who were able to secure the largest buy-out in DC history by a residents' association, the original 31 red brick apartment buildings converted to condominiums; nine original dormitory buildings had been destroyed in 1974–75. In the early 1980s, construction of a rental section began under a different limited partnership, eventually including both townhouses (called "The Village at McLean Gardens") and a nine-story luxury apartment building ("The Towers"). These units were registered as condominiums with the city so that they could be sold at a later date. That time came in 2006 with the establishment of "Vaughan Place." Tenants in the rental units have claimed that they had not been told that their homes could be sold and had not been given the right to buy first. The McLean School of Maryland is named after the development, as it was started on the top floor of one of the original buildings. The school was forced to move to its current location when the demand for housing in the area grew.
Prominent residents include D.C. Councilman Phil Mendelson (D-At Large).
Michigan Park, District of Columbia:
Michigan Park is a neighborhood in Northeast Washington, D.C.. It is bordered by Gallatin Street NE to the north, 6th Street NE to the to west, Taylor Street NE and Michigan Avenue to the south, and South Dakota Avenue to the east.
The adjacent neighborhood (to the northeast), across South Dakota Avenue, is called North Michigan Park. Although both neighborhoods are part of the same Advisory Neighborhood Commission, they are two separate neighborhoods. Historically, the reason for the separation was that Michigan Park was a white neighborhood in segregated Washington, while North Michigan Park was a black neighborhood.
Mount Pleasant is a neighborhood in the northwestern quadrant of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. The neighborhood is bounded by Rock Creek Park to the north and west; and Harvard Street, NW and the Adams Morgan neighborhood to the south; and Sixteenth Street, NW and the Columbia Heights neighborhood to the east. The neighborhood is home to approximately ten thousand people, which is approximately two percent of the population of the city.
In 1727, Charles Calvert, 5th Lord Baltimore (then governor of the Maryland Colony) awarded a land grant for present day Mount Pleasant to James Holmead. This estate also included the present-day Adams Morgan, Columbia Heights, and Pleasant Plains neighborhoods. James's son, Anthony, inherited the estate in 1750 and named it Pleasant Plains. After the United States Congress created the District of Columbia in 1791, Pleasant Plains estate became part of Washington County, a section of the District lying between what now is Florida Avenue and the Maryland border. The Holmeads began selling tracts of the Pleasant Plains estate until they had sold everything. Today, the family name is preserved in Holmead Place, a short street located west of Thirteenth Street between Spring and Park Roads NW, in what now is Columbia Heights. During 1794 and 1796 Robert Peter, Georgetown's pioneer businessman, conducted title descriptions and maps were created for tracts of some of his land in Mount Pleasant for transactions with commissioners of the city.
During the Civil War, New England native Samuel P. Brown purchased 73 acres (300,000 m2) of land between Fourteenth and Seventeenth Streets, NW. Brown built a house and allowed a wartime hospital to be constructed on his land. After the War, he began selling his land in parcels. He named the area, Mount Pleasant Village, because it contained the land having the highest elevation of the original Pleasant Plains estate. Brown sold all his land except for the parcel he retained around his house at 3351 Mount Pleasant Street, NW. His house was demolished in the 1890s.
Most of the original settlers built wooden frame houses and farmed their tracts, growing their own food. Stores and other businesses opened around what today is the intersection of Fourteenth Street and Park Road, NW. Settlers laid out early roads in the area, such as Adams Mill Road, Mount Pleasant Street, Newton Street, and Park Road to follow local custom and to accommodate local needs and land ownership. Although Mount Pleasant was within the District of Columbia, it was separated from the city of Washington by vacant land and was rural by comparison. Because of this separate development, the Mount Pleasant street grid is distinct from Washington's cartesian grid and now that the two are part of a single urban fabric, some of its streets appear to have been laid out haphazardly, with several intersecting city streets at odd or severe angles to the greater design.
In the 1870s, a horse-drawn streetcar began traveling from the Fourteenth and Park intersection to downtown Washington City, creating the first streetcar suburb in the District of Columbia. Mount Pleasant ceased to be an independent and separate place in 1878 after the city's boundaries became coterminous with those of the District. Mount Pleasant developed rapidly as a streetcar suburb after the opening of the streetcar line around 1900. Many houses and apartment buildings were constructed between 1900 and 1925. In 1925, the District built the Mount Pleasant Library funded by Andrew Carnegie to serve the growing affluent community.
The streets were lined with tall trees that created a continuous canopy of shade. Gardens of ivy, shrubs, and flowering plants were created in the successive terraces from the streets to the base of the stairs of the typical front porches. Landings in the staircases through the terraces were marked with fountains and sculpture. Houses were built adjacent to each other, as row houses. Alleys between all streets provided access for servants and services. Fences separated properties into back yards with vegetable gardens, fruit trees, barns and garages. Many houses were constructed with two levels of cellars below the entry level from the main street, but all having disguised access for landscape equipment through the cellars under the house. Rear sleeping porches extended from the floors with bedrooms.
Mount Pleasant was marketed to middle to upper middle class people. Actress Helen Hayes, Washington Senators pitcher Walter Johnson, and US Senator Robert LaFollette made their homes in Mount Pleasant.
The neighborhood entered a period of transition in the 1960s. Mount Pleasant was racially segregated as were most neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. at the time. When an African American Howard University professor moved into a prestigious Park Road home, some white residents began to leave the neighborhood. This form of suburbanization, often referred to as White flight, increased after the 1968 riots. Neglect affected many properties and most of the characteristic landscaping was lost, including the canopy of shade trees.
Spanish speaking immigrants also began settling in Mount Pleasant in the 1960s, many from El Salvador and the Dominican Republic. Businesses catering to Hispanics and Latinos developed along commercial portions of Mount Pleasant Street.
Affluent professionals began returning to the neighborhood in the early 1980s. According to the Washingtonian magazine, housing prices rose nearly as fast as any area of metropolitan Washington. Many homes were renovated and some projects were featured in local and national magazines. A one million dollar "green" renovation was featured in a National Public Radio story.
In 1991, an incident between a police officer and a Latino led to rioting along Mount Pleasant Street. As a result, the Metropolitan Police Department began an outreach effort to the Latino population. Since then, many Latino immigrants have moved to more affordable D.C. neighborhoods east of Mount Pleasant and to more distant suburbs.
The western four-fifths of the Mount Pleasant area is a largely wooded residential enclave bounded on two sides by Rock Creek Park. Structures in this area are primarily row houses, with some subdivided into one or two apartments. A few of the original nineteenth century wood-frame houses remain, mostly north of Park Road. The eastern border of Mount Pleasant, along Sixteenth and Mount Pleasant Streets, is marked by mid-rise apartment buildings. These buildings offer rental apartments, condominium and cooperatives. There is a four-block commercial corridor with convenience shopping in the neighborhood along Mount Pleasant Street. In 2008, a large retail development was completed in Columbia Heights, just east of Mount Pleasant.
District of Columbia Public Schools operates public schools.
District of Columbia Public Library operates the Mount Pleasant Neighborhood Library.
A series of "Heritage Trail" historical markers have been installed in Mt. Pleasant. The markers, which may be followed as a walking tour, consist of 17 poster-sized street signs featuring narrative, photographs and maps.
Naylor Gardens, District of Columbia:
Naylor Gardens is a small neighborhood located in southeast Washington, D.C. It is bounded by Suitland Road to the north, Southern Avenue to the south, Naylor Road to the west, and Branch Avenue to the east. The neighborhood is located in the area south and east of the Anacostia River.
Naylor Gardens is dominated by an owner held, residential co-op. Hailed by the Washington Post as one of DC's last best kept secrets, the neighborhood is an easy commute to the new waterfront district of DC. The community is adjacent to Hillcrest to the northeast, Skyland to the northwest, and Garfield Heights to the west.
North Portal Estates, District of Columbia:
North Portal Estates is an affluent residential neighborhood in Washington, D.C. that forms the northernmost corner of the District of Columbia. North Portal Estates is bounded by North Portal Drive to the south, East Beach drive to the west and northwest, and Rock Creek Park to the northeast. It is not set on any major thoroughfare in the city, although North Portal Drive is accessible via a rotary intersection on 16th Street NW.
Because of its isolation via the park and lack of major streets, the neighborhood is extraordinarily suburban in character, full of winding streets, detached houses on large lots, and open space. Many prominent District of Columbia city government officials have lived there.
North Portal Estates and the rest of Ward 4 are represented in the Council of the District of Columbia by Muriel Bowser.
Northeast Boundary, District of Columbia:
Northeast Boundary is a small neighborhood located in northeast Washington, D.C. It is Eastern Avenue to the northeast, Southern Avenue to the southeast, Marvin Gaye Park to the southwest, 55th Street NE to the west.
The Palisades is a neighborhood in Washington, D.C., along the Potomac River, running roughly from the edge of the Georgetown University campus (at Foxhall Road) to the D.C.-Maryland boundary (near Delacarlia Treatment Plant). MacArthur Boulevard (once called Conduit Road) is the main thoroughfare that passes through The Palisades.
In 1893, this sub-division was laid out by the Palisades Improvement Company. The Palisades had the Great Falls Electric Railway that ran from 36th and Prospect streets out to Glen Echo. The International Athletic Park and Amusement Company secured a large block of the Palisades and constructed a Bicycle Track and General Amusement Park which opened on Decoration Day in 1896. Also encompassed within The Palisades is the neighborhood of Potomac Heights which is bounded by Loughboro Road at the north end, Arizona Avenue at the south end and MacArthur Boulevard and the Potomac River.
In June 1909, the Potomac Heights Land Co. (based in North Carolina) acquired 75 acres (300,000 m2) previously known as the Athletic Park tract at the reported cost of $1000 an acre. The tract extends parallel with and between Conduit Road and the Potomac. It is divided by the Washington Railway and Electric Company which ran from Georgetown to Glen Echo for a 5 cent fare. There were 800 lots at $450–$500 per lot and no home was to be erected at less than $2500.
The Palisades is part of Advisory Neighborhood Commission 3D in Ward 3, the far northwest corner of the Northwest Quadrant just north of Georgetown. The current Palisades Citizens Association (PCA) was started as the Conduit Road Citizens Association in 1916.
The Palisades is one of the lesser-known neighborhoods in Washington, with a mixture of detached houses, townhouses and apartments. The homes along the bluff on Potomac Avenue offer a broad view of the Potomac River and the Virginia riverfront, with often impressive sunset views.
Since 1928, the Palisades has been served by the Francis Scott Key Elementary School, which is part of the DC Public Schools. Extensive capital improvement of Key Elementary was completed in fall 2003. The renovated and expanded school currently enrolls 285 students and will gradually increase to approximately 300.
The current Palisades Library was dedicated in November 1969 replacing the former library in the Conduit Road Schoolhouse.
Battery Kemble was at an elevation on Ridge Road (now Nebraska Avenue). The battery held two 100-pounder Parrott rifles, placed to sweep Chain Bridge and Virginia beyond. The site is located within Battery Kemble Park, bounded by Chain Bridge Road, MacArthur Boulevard, 49th Street, and Nebraska Avenue, NW.
Fletcher's Cove Fletcher's cove is on the Potomac River and the C & O Canal National Historical Park, between Chain and Key Bridges. Fletcher's has been in this location since the 1850s and is renowned as a superb fishing and recreational area. The nearby Abner Cloud House is the oldest building on the canal, dating back to 1802. After 145 years of business, the fourth generation of Fletcher's retired in 2004 and Guest Services Incorporated, a National Park Service concessionaire, assumed responsibility for the operation of the concessions. The area surrounding the boat house was then officially named Fletcher's Cove, though most people still call it Fletcher's Boat House.
Other notable landmarks making The Palisades unique are the old Conduit Road Schoolhouse on MacArthur Boulevard, Palisades Community Church (1923), The Lab School of Washington (1967) (formerly the Florence Crittenton Home for Unwed Mothers), the German Embassy, St. David's Episcopal Church (1940), Sibley Hospital (1961) and Gen. Montgomery C. Meig's Washington Aqueduct/ Delcarlia Filtration/ Water Treatment Plant (1853).
Remnants are everywhere of the old Capitol Transit #20 trolley (Union Station to Cabin John) that was a very popular ride though the Palisades out to the Glen Echo Amusement Park (1898-1968).
Designed by John J. Zink, the MacArthur Theater, originally a single 1,000 seater that was tri-plexed in 1982, was in use from December 1946 through March 1997.
On September 11, 1936, at a cost of $40,000, the Palisades Playground and field house was dedicated at its current Sherier and Edmunds Place location.
The Palisades neighborhood is the home for a variety of popular restaurants such as Figs, Makoto, Bambu, Listrani's, BlackSalt, Chen's Gourmet, Palisades Pizzeria and Clam Bar, Kotobuki, DC Boathouse, Et Voila' and the new Salt and Pepper Restaurant, and its very own pet supply store, Profeed of DC.
A high point of the year for many in the neighborhood is the annual July 4 parade, featuring local bands, fire engines and children on highly decorated tricycles and bicycles.
District of Columbia Public Schools operates public schools.
District of Columbia Public Library operates the Palisades Neighborhood Library.
Petworth, District of Columbia:
Petworth is a residential neighborhood in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C., bounded by Georgia Avenue to the west, North Capitol Street to the east, Rock Creek Church Road to the south, and Kennedy Street NW to the north. Petworth and the rest of Ward 4 are represented in the Council of the District of Columbia by Muriel Bowser.
The neighborhood was originally the site of two separate country estates in Washington County, D.C., a then-unincorporated part of the District of Columbia: Petworth, the 204-acre (0.83 km2) estate of Col. John Tayloe III, and the 183-acre (0.74 km2) Marshall Brown estate, which eventually also became the property of the Tayloe family. In the late 1880s, after the estates had become part of the city, two real-estate investment partnerships purchased the estates for development. The neighborhood bloomed with the expansion of the streetcar line up Georgia Avenue (then known as Seventh Street Extended or Brightwood Avenue) from Florida Avenue (Boundary Street) to the Washington DC line at Silver Spring, Maryland.
Many of the thousands of similar brick row houses in the neighborhood were constructed by Cafritz Builders and also by D.J. Dunigan Company in the 1920s and 30s. Dunigan personally donated the land that became the site for St. Gabriel's Church and School adjacent to Grant Circle.
Today, the neighborhood is primarily residential with a mix of townhouses and single-family homes. It is served by the Georgia Ave-Petworth station on the Washington Metro's Green Line and Yellow Line. Petworth is home to two expanses of historic greenspace, Rock Creek Cemetery and the US Soldiers' and Airmens' Home (now known as the Armed Forces Retirement Home).
The Petworth Community Market, can be found in the heart of Petworth at Ninth & Upshur Streets in Washington DC. The market features fresh produce, artisan food, and locally grown food from farms. Organized by the Petworth Community Market, Inc. (a non-profit organization made up of Petworth residents, one of the goals of the market is to improve the life of residents and local producers, growers and artists. Musical entertainment can often be heard while residents and visitors shop along the block long market.
District of Columbia Public Schools operates public schools.
District of Columbia Public Library operates the Petworth Neighborhood Library.
In recent years, Petworth has seen a revival in the number of commercial establishments courting its growing urban population.
Petworth Gardens, also known as the Webster Garden Apartments, are listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Washington, D. C.
Riggs Park, District of Columbia:
Riggs Park is a mostly black residential neighborhood in Northeast Washington, D.C. It is bounded by Riggs Road NE to the south and east, Eastern Avenue to the north, and Blair Road NE, Kansas Avenue NE, and North Capitol Street NE to the west.
Shepherd Park, District of Columbia:
Shepherd Park is a neighborhood in the northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C. In the years following World War II, restrictive covenants which had prevented Jews and African Americans from purchasing homes in the neighborhood were no longer enforced, and the neighborhood became largely Jewish and African American. Over the past 40 years, the Jewish population of the neighborhood has declined (though it is now increasing again), but the neighborhood has continued to support a thriving upper and middle class African American community. The Shepherd Park Citizens Association and Neighbors Inc. led efforts to stem white flight from the neighborhood in the 1960s and 1970s, and it has remained a continuously integrated neighborhood, with very active and inclusive civic groups.
Shepherd Park and the rest of Ward 4 are represented in the Council of the District of Columbia by Muriel Bowser and is home to a number of prominent people including NAACP President Benjamin Jealous and his wife, law professor, Lia Epperson. A number of judges, professors, newspaper reporters, and doctors also live in the community.
The northern line of the neighborhood is defined by Eastern Avenue NW, which divides Shepherd Park from Silver Spring, Maryland. The neighborhood is further bounded at the south by Walter Reed Hospital, at the east by Georgia Avenue NW, and the west by 16th Street NW.
Heading out of the city, traveling north on 16th Street, just before getting to the DC-Maryland border, most streets are named after flowers, shrubs and trees. Iris Street, Primrose Road, and Geranium Street are but a few flower-inspired street names.
Georgia Avenue is the only commercial corridor near the neighborhood.
Local architecture includes colonials (both traditional and Spanish style), ramblers, Tudors, farmhouses, split-levels, and a few Sears bungalows.
Shepherd Park takes its name from its most famous resident: Alexander Robey Shepherd, the governor of the then-Territory of DC from 1873 to 1874.
Shortly before becoming governor (in 1868), Shepherd built a grand Second Empire-style Victorian that once stood near the corner of Geranium and 13th Street.
Shepherd dubbed his large country home "Bleak House" after a Dickens novel he and his wife were reading at the time of their home's construction. The mansion was demolished in 1916.
Shepherd owned a plant nursery in the District of Columbia, which enabled the 60,000 trees he had planted. His nursery led to a variety of wild flowers that still thrive in the yards of city residents. It is also the genesis of the streets in Shepherd Park being named for flowers.
The Shepherd Park Citizens Association and Neighbors Inc led efforts to fight blockbusting and maintain the integrated nature of the neighborhood in the 1960s and 1970s. It is one of the only neighborhoods on the east side of Rock Creek Park where white flight was stemmed in those years.
District of Columbia Public Schools operates public schools.
District of Columbia Public Library operates the Juanita E. Thornton/Shepherd Park Neighborhood Library.
Shipley Terrace, District of Columbia:
Shipley Terrace, formerly known as Randall Heights, is a large residential neighborhood in Southeast Washington, D.C., bordering Prince George's County, Maryland. The neighborhood, named after a former public housing complex in the neighborhood, which was largely occupied by low-income housing — primarily walkup and garden unit apartments. This neighborhood now has a mix of townhome communities, large single family home communities, as well as some low-income housing. It is a model neighborhood for the Hope VI revitalization Grant Program.
Shipley Terrace is bounded by Alabama Avenue to the north, Mississippi Avenue to the south, Wheeler Road to the west, Suitland Parkway to the northeast, and Southern Avenue to the southeast. Also see article on Anacostia.
Skyland, District of Columbia:
Skyland is a neighborhood in Southeast Washington, D.C. It is bounded by Good Hope Road to the northeast, Alabama Avenue to the southeast, and Fort Stanton Park to the south and west. Also see article on Anacostia.
The District is in the midst of redeveloping the 18-acre (73,000 m2) Skyland Shopping Center at Alabama Avenue and Naylor Road, SE in Ward 7 into a mixed-used town center.
The District is working with the Rappaport Cos. and the William S. Smith Cos. on a master plan for the site. Initial plans for Skyland call for more than 320,000 square feet (30,000 m2) of retail space—a combination of high-quality, large format national-brand retailers and neighborhood serving shops and restaurants.
The project will also include 420 to 470 units of housing, about 80 percent of the units will be condos and 20 percent will be apartments.
There are several outstanding legal issues associated with the project that have complicated the development process, but the District is working closely with the development team and its architects, Torti Gallas & Partners, to accelerate the pre-development work so the project moves on a parallel track with the legal process.
The development team expects to have its master plan completed and a Planned Unit Development (PUD) application filed with the Zoning Commission by the spring of 2008. The District and development team are negotiating the business terms of their agreement. The DC Council has already approved a Tax Increment Financing (TIF) package to provide gap financing for the project.
Skyland is within the Good Hope neighborhood and borders Hillcrest to the east and Naylor Gardens to the southeast.
Southwest Waterfront, District of Columbia:
Southwest Waterfront is a residential neighborhood in Southwest Washington, D.C.. Southwest is the smallest of Washington's four quadrants, and Southwest Waterfront is one of only two residential neighborhoods in the quadrant; the other is Bellevue, which, being east of the Anacostia River, is frequently, if mistakenly, regarded as being in Southeast. For that reason many residents of Southwest Waterfront will simply refer to themselves as living in "Southwest."
Southwest Waterfront is part of Pierre L'Enfant's original city plans and includes some of the oldest buildings in the city, including the Wheat Row block of townhouses, built in 1793, and Fort McNair, which was established in 1791 as "the U.S. Arsenal at Greenleaf Point."
After the Civil War, the Southwest Waterfront became a neighborhood for the poorer classes of Washingtonians. The neighborhood was divided in half by Fourth Street SW, then known as 4½ Street; Scottish, Irish, German, and eastern European immigrants lived west of 4½ Street, while freed blacks lived to the east. Each half was centered on religious establishments: St. Dominic's Catholic Church and Temple Beth Israel on the west, and Friendship Baptist Church on the east. (Also, each half of the neighborhood was the childhood residence of a future American musical star — Al Jolson lived on 4½ Street for a time, and Marvin Gaye was born in a tenement on First Street.)
The Waterfront developed into a quite contradictory area: it had a thriving commercial district with grocery stores, shops, a movie theater, as well as a few large and elaborate houses (mostly owned by wealthy blacks). However, most of the neighborhood was a very poor shantytown of tenements, shacks, and even tents. These places, some of them in the shadow of the Capitol, were frequent subjects of photographs that were published with captions like, "The Washington that tourists never see."
In the 1950s, city planners working with the Congress decided that the entire Southwest quadrant should undergo significant urban renewal — in this case, meaning that the city would acquire nearly all land south of the mall (except Bolling Air Force Base and Fort McNair), either through voluntary purchases or through the use of eminent domain; evict virtually all of its residents and businesses; destroy many of its streets, and all of its buildings and landscapes; and start again from scratch.
There was some opposition to the plan, notably from the Southwest Civic Association, because of its emphasis on building luxury housing rather than supplying low and moderate income dwellings to replace the homes slated for demolition. John Ihlder, the director of the Alley Dwelling Authority, also spoke out about the plan's failure to provide enough affordable and public housing. However, the redevelopment plans, which had been crafted by architects Louis Justement and Chloethiel Woodward Smith and which included modernist buildings, ample green spaces, and plenty of parking, were popular among many city residents and officials, and their appeal eventually won out. Only a few buildings were left intact, notably the Maine Avenue Fish Market, the Wheat Row townhouses, the Thomas Law House, and the St. Dominic's and Friendship churches. The Southeast/Southwest Freeway section of Interstate 395 was constructed where F Street, SW, had once been, separating the quadrant's business district from the residential Waterfront neighborhood.
The heart of the urban renewal of the Southwest Waterfront was Waterside Mall, a small shopping center/office complex mostly occupied by a Safeway grocery store and satellite offices for the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The Arena Stage was built a block west of the Mall, and a number of hotels and restaurants were built on the riverfront to attract tourists. Southeastern University, a very small college that had been chartered in 1937, also established itself as an important institution in the area.
The residential aspect of the project began with a large apartment complex and park called Potomac Place, located on 4th Street between G and I Streets. When Nikita Khrushchev visited Washington in 1959, he pointed out to President Dwight D. Eisenhower the extremely poor dwellings that stood on the way from Bolling Air Force Base (where Khruschev had arrived in the city) to the downtown area; Eisenhower, in response, ordered their driver to pass by Potomac Place in order to show the Soviet Premier that the nation's capital was working to assist its poorer citizens.
Due to its history of urban redevelopment, most of the Southwest Waterfront neighborhood is composed of large cooperatives or condominiums, often containing both townhouses and apartment buildings, and most are rare examples of Modern Architecture in Washington, D.C. River Park features townhouses and a highrise building a unique modern glass and aluminum design by the award-winning architect Charles Goodman. Tiber Island, which was designed by noted architects Keyes, Lethbridge and Condon and built in 1965 in a pinwheel shape with a large courtyard and town houses in the quadrants, won the American Institute of Architects award for Multi-Family Residential design in 1966. Carrollsburg was completed in 1967 and developed as a companion piece to Tiber Island by the same architects.
In 1972, the Titanic Memorial was moved to the Washington Channel, near Fort McNair in Southwest Waterfront.
The Washington Metro built the Waterfront Metro station on its Green Line and opened it in 1991.
Starting around 2003, the Southwest Waterfront began gentrifying. A number of the neighborhood's apartment buildings began extensive renovations and condominium conversions. Residential and commercial developers began to take a more serious interest in Southwest with the announcement in 2004 that the city would build the new Washington Nationals baseball stadium just across South Capitol Street from Southwest. The Southwest Waterfront has now been earmarked as the site of the next wave of DC redevelopment. Large development projects currently underway or in the planning stage include Waterfront Station, a mixed retail-commercial-residential development at Fourth & M Streets SW; the expansion and redesign of Arena Stage; and the radical redesign and overhaul of the waterfront itself, to include residences, office space, hotels, and retail establishments.
Current residents include House Representative John Conyers and former Police Chief Charles Ramsey. Hubert Humphrey lived there while serving as U.S. Vice President, and Thurgood Marshall, Lewis Powell, and David Souter all had homes in Southwest during their tenures on the United States Supreme Court.
On August 22, 2012 Armando Magtalas Balajadia went to Thomas Jefferson Memorial after he visited at US Senates' and US House of Representatives' Buildings. The Thomas Jefferson Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington, D.C. dedicated to Thomas Jefferson, an American Founding Father and the third President of the United States. The neoclassical building was designed by the architect John Russell Pope and built by the Philadelphia contractor John McShain. Construction of the building began in 1938 and was completed in 1943. The bronze statue of Jefferson was added in 1947. The Jefferson Memorial is managed by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks division. In 2007, it was ranked fourth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects.The site of the monument is in Washington D.C. West Potomac Park, on the shore of the Potomac River Tidal Basin, is enhanced with the massed planting of Japanese cherry trees, a gift from the people of Japan in 1912. The monument is not as prominent in popular culture as other Washington, D.C. buildings and monuments, possibly due to its location well removed from the National Mall and the Washington Metro. The Jefferson Memorial hosts many events and ceremonies each year, including memorial exercises, the Easter Sunrise Service, and the annual National Cherry Blossom Festival. The monument is open 24 hours a day but park rangers are there only until 11:30 p.m.;however, the monument is only a few hundred yards from the National Park Police D.C. Headquarters in East Potomac Park.
After this, he went to Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial. The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial is a presidential memorial dedicated to the memory of U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and to the era he represents. For the memorial's designer, landscape architect Lawrence Halprin, the memorial site represents the capstone of a distinguished career, partly because the landscape architect had fond memories of Roosevelt, and partly because of the sheer difficulty of the task. Dedicated on May 2, 1997 by President Bill Clinton, the monument, spread over 7.5 acres (3.0 ha), traces 12 years of the history of the United States through a sequence of four outdoor rooms, one for each of FDR's terms of office. Sculptures inspired by photographs depict the 32nd president alongside his dog Fala. Other sculptures depict scenes from the Great Depression, such as listening to a fireside chat on the radio and waiting in a bread line, a bronze sculpture by George Segal. A bronze statue of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt standing before the United Nations emblem honors her dedication to the UN. It is the only presidential memorial to depict a First Lady. Considering Roosevelt's disability, the memorial's designers intended to create a memorial that would be accessible to those with various physical impairments. Among other features, the memorial includes an area with tactile reliefs with braille writing for people who are blind. However, the memorial faced serious criticism from disabled activists. Vision-impaired visitors complained that the braille dots were improperly spaced and that some of the braille and reliefs were mounted eight feet off of the ground, placing it above the reach of most people.
Spring Valley, District of Columbia:
Spring Valley is an affluent neighborhood in northwest Washington, D.C., known for its large homes and tree-lined streets.
The neighborhood houses the main campus of American University at 4400 Massachusetts Avenue, the Wesley Theological Seminary at 4500 Massachusetts Avenue, and Washington College of Law at 4801 Massachusetts Avenue and 4910 Massachusetts Avenue. Nebraska Avenue and Loughboro Road are to its south, Dalecarlia Parkway is to its west, and Massachusetts Avenue is to its northeast. Paradoxically, the neighborhood to the northeast is called American University Park, even though the bulk of the main campus is located in Spring Valley.
Spring Valley's residents include notable media personalities (e.g., Ann Compton, Jim Vance), lawyers (e.g., United States Attorney General Eric Holder, Brendan Sullivan), politicians, corporate officers, and elite Washington society (e.g., Washington Nationals principal owners Ed and Debra Cohen). Richard Nixon lived in Spring Valley before becoming President; his immediate predecessor, Lyndon B. Johnson, after becoming Vice President under John F. Kennedy, purchased a three-story mansion named Les Ormes (The Elms) in Spring Valley along 52nd Street NW that had previously been the home of socialite and ambassador Perle Mesta. George H.W. Bush also lived in the neighborhood prior to his White House years. Presently it is the residence of the ambassador of Syria. Warren and sister Doris Buffett lived on 49th Street during their years attending Wilson HS.
During World War I Spring Valley was an undeveloped area that the army used for testing chemical weapons. In 1993, during excavations for new construction workers found unexploded ordnance, and scientists have found high levels of arsenic in the soil. This touched off a cleanup effort by the Environmental Protection Agency that lasted two years. Later, many more dangerous sites in the area were uncovered, including three burial pits on grounds of the South Korean ambassador’s residence. As of 2012, the work was still ongoing with tons of earth being replaced and at least one house being scheduled for demolition.
Several embassy residences are located in the neighborhood, such as the ambassador's houses of South Korea, Canada, Croatia, Mexico, Bahrain, Qatar, Uganda, Chile, Luxembourg, and Yemen. Spring Valley's median home sale price in 2007 was US$2.725 and in 2008 $3.022 million.
Stanton Park, District of Columbia:
Stanton Park is a national capital park located at the intersection of Maryland Avenue and Massachusetts Avenue in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Northeast Washington, D.C. It is bounded by 4th Street to the west and 6th Street to the east. North and south of the park are the respective westbound and eastbound lanes of C Street, NE.
The park is named after Edwin M. Stanton, the United States Secretary of War during the American Civil War, whose attempted later removal prompted the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson. Located in the center of Stanton Park is a statue of American Revolutionary War Major General Nathanael Greene. The park was included in Pierre L'Enfant's original plan for the city.
A playground is located in the western section of the park; a section in the eastern half is often used by dog walkers. The park is maintained by the National Park Service and as such, dogs are not allowed off leash.
"Stanton Park" is also commonly used to describe the surrounding neighborhood. There are no official boundaries, but the Stanton Park Neighborhood Association represents the area from 2nd Street, NE to 10th Street, NE, and from East Capitol Street to H Street, NE.
Takoma, District of Columbia:
Takoma (or Takoma Park) is a neighborhood in northern Washington, D.C.. It is located in Advisory Neighborhood Commission 4B, in the District's Fourth Ward, within the northwest quadrant. Takoma is a diverse neighborhood, populated mostly by middle-class families. It has fewer apartments than adjoining areas in Maryland. Large buildings are confined to the small downtown, which is slowly being re-developed. Many of the houses in the area are historic, with some over 100 years old. Takoma and the rest of Ward 4 are represented in the Council of the District of Columbia by Muriel Bowser.
Along Eastern Avenue, the boundary of the District of Columbia, the neighborhood borders the city of Takoma Park, Maryland, with which it shares its origins. Takoma shares a common identity with the neighboring city in Maryland, and the downtown area surrounding the Takoma Metro station crosses the District of Columbia line.
Takoma is bounded by Georgia Avenue to the west, somewhere between Tuckerman and Van Buren Streets to the south, and Eastern Avenue to the northeast. The current site of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center on Georgia Avenue separates it from Rock Creek Park.
The neighborhood's Takoma Recreation Center and Public Pool is one of several major recreation centers in D.C.
Takoma was originally developed in 1888 as part of a Victorian resort village. Developer B.F. Gilbert encouraged the Seventh-Day Adventist Church to set up their world headquarters in neighboring Takoma Park, Maryland, and promoted the community's reputation for vegetarianism and "clean living" away from the "malarial swamps" of the city. Takoma, D.C. was originally regarded as the commercial hub for the entire surrounding area, prior to the development of Silver Spring, as it featured large shops and industrial buildings in the area now occupied by the Metro station. The Seventh-Day Adventist Church maintained a publishing house on the D.C. side of the line; after moving to Silver Spring, the former site of the publishing house became art lofts and rehearsal space for the Washington Opera.
The Takoma Theater, built in 1924, is located in the neighborhood. Takoma Theatre Conservancy, a nonprofit preservation group, is raising money to buy and refurbish the theater. The District of Columbia awarded a grant to the group to study how the theater would affect the residential neighborhood and how it should operate the theater if it reopened.
Both Takoma, D.C., and Takoma Park, Maryland, were noted regionally and nationally for progressive politics dating from the 1960s, when area residents (led by future Takoma Park, MD mayor Sam Abbott) rallied to prevent a 10-lane freeway from bisecting the community, and lobbied to build the Metrorail system, on the site of the former B&O railroad station around which the community had been built. However, much of the land adjacent to the station was demolished or neglected in the wake of the freeway controversy, creating division between downtown Takoma Park, MD and the center of the Takoma community, which roughly parallels the D.C. line. Both of the remaining areas, on either side of the D.C.-Maryland line, are now protected as U.S. Historic Districts.
District of Columbia Public Schools operates public schools. Takoma Elementary School and Coolidge High School are located in Takoma, D.C.
District of Columbia Public Library operates the Takoma Park Neighborhood Library. It was the first neighborhood library in Washington, D.C. and a Carnegie library.
Trinidad, District of Columbia:
Trinidad is a neighborhood located in Ward 5, in the northeast quadrant of Washington, D.C. and is a largely residential area.
Trinidad is bounded to the north by Mt. Olivet Road, to the west by West Virginia Avenue, to the south by Florida Avenue, and to the east by Bladensburg Road. To the north of Trinidad is the more industrial (and impoverished) neighborhood Ivy City. To the west is Gallaudet University and the Florida Market (D.C.'s wholesale food district, also called the Capital City Market). To the east lies Carver Langston. To the south of Trinidad is Old City, so named because it was part of Pierre L'Enfant's original plan for the city, and generally referred to as either Near Northeast or Capitol Hill North. Located immediately south of Trinidad, is the H Street Corridor. The eastern portion of the H Street Corridor is sometimes referred to as the Atlas District, part of a neighborhood branding campaign centered around the revitalized Atlas Theater, now called the Atlas Performing Arts Center.
The name Trinidad is believed to come from a former owner of the land who lived on the island nation of Trinidad and planned to relocate here but who died before he could fulfill his plan.
The land passed to and from the Corcoran family who used it as a country estate, to Columbian College, which later became George Washington University, and then to the Washington Brick Machine Company. The brickworks intended to excavate clay from the land, but not needing all of the land, began selling off parcels, and, in the late 19th century, the first houses in southern Trinidad were built.
The Trinidad Neighborhood Association is a community-based, volunteer-driven organization dedicated to enhancing the quality of life in Washington, DC’s Trinidad neighborhood. Founded in 2009, TNA works to identify and address community concerns, and to promote opportunities for economic development by engaging community stakeholders.
The first two blocks north of Florida Avenue feature classic Victorian rowhouses similar to those in nearby Capitol Hill. Further north, many of the row houses are built in a flat porch-fronted style (similar to craftsman style) that gained popularity during the 1920s. Northern portions of Trinidad were developed later, some parts as late as the 1940s.
Wheatley Education Campus is a DC Public School school that serves grades PK-8 in the District of Columbia. It is located at 1299 Neal Street NE.
Center City PCS Trinidad is a Public Charter School that serves grades PK-8 in the District of Columbia. It is located at 1217 West Virginia Ave, NE.
Joel Elias Spingarn Senior High School is designed to provide a 9-12 grade standards-based instructional continuum which serves as a basic foundation for the future acquisition of skills and knowledge at the post secondary level, enabling each student to function as a responsible, global citizen. It is located at 2500 Benning Road NE.
Gallaudet University is a federally chartered university for the education of the deaf and hard of hearing, located in Washington, D.C. It is located at 800 Florida Avenue NE.
Trinidad is served by the NoMa – Gallaudet University Metro station on the Red Line.
Trinidad is served by the D1, D3, D4, D8, X3, and B2 bus services of the MetroBus.
Art in the Alley was inspired by the confluence of the emergent arts scene in the Trinidad neighborhood of Washington, DC, a desire to build community through positive interaction with our neighbors and an empowering do-it-yourself spirit. Launched in 2011, Art in the Alley celebrates local art in local spaces twice a year - once in the spring and again in the fall. The alley is located between the 1200s block of Florida Ave and Morse St NE in residential Trinidad, just blocks from some of the spectacular art galleries and the H St/Atlas art district.
The block party is sponsored by the Trinidad Neighborhood Association and is a fun event for all ages. There are fun activities for the young and the young at heart.
An annual garden tour sponsored by the Trinidad Neighborhood Association showcasing the many splendid gardens in the neighborhood.
The Trinidad Neighborhood Committee, an informal group of former and current residents, holds the Annual Trinidad Day every August at the Trinidad Recreation Center to celebrate the community and embrace the youth.
Crime was a significant problem in Trinidad in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In 2007 and 2008 an abnormal rash gun violence in the neighborhood resulted in police checkpoints. Beyond 2008, crime is Trinidad is declining on par with other neighborhoods in the District of Columbia.
University Heights, District of Columbia:
University Heights is a neighborhood adjacent to The Catholic University of America in Northeast Washington, D.C.. It is located east of the University and west of the Franciscan Monastery, bounded by the tracks for the Red Line of the Washington Metro to the west; 14th Street NE to the east; Taylor Street to the north; and Otis Street to the south.
University Heights is often thought of as a section of the Brookland neighborhood, largely because Brookland Elementary School is inside University Heights, but is actually a separate neighborhood north of Brookland proper.
Contained within University Heights are Fort Bunker Hill Park and Turkey Thicket Park & Recreation Center.
Washington Highlands, District of Columbia:
Washington Highlands is a large residential neighborhood in Southeast Washington, D.C., bounded on three sides by Oxon Run Park and on the fourth (southeast) side by Southern Avenue. It is the largest residential neighborhood in Ward 8, the poorest and least developed section of Washington.
As of 2007, Washington Highlands had a population of 8,829, including 3,242 households and a median household income of $28,885. 81.3% of residents in Washington Highlands are renters, and 18.7% are home owners. 71.6% of households are families.
Most of the neighborhood it is low-income and public housing apartment complexes, including the 204-unit Highland Dwelling public housing complex. The DC Housing Authority received 2009 stimulus funding, and has allocated $11 million towards rehabilitation of Highland Dwellings.
Wheeler Creek is a 314-unit community, developed with 1997 HOPE VI grant, replacing Valley Green and Skytower. Wheeler Creek includes 48 low-income rental units, 100 senior apartments, 32 market-rate rental units, 30 lease/purchase unites, and the rest are for purchase.
Highland Additions was a 118-unit complex that was torn down in 2001. The DC government is seeking HOPE funding to redevelop the site as a townhouse community.
In recent years a gated community, Walter Washington Estates, has drawn middle-class residents.
A new tennis and learning center, combining sports and education, is located in Washington Highlands. The DC Public Library is slated to re-open the renovated Washington Highlands branch in summer 2011, and has an interim branch open in the neighborhood.
The most prominent landmark in Washington Highlands is Greater Southeast Community Hospital, the facility that serves the majority of public health-care needs in the District of Columbia, and whose funding and finances are stretched.
Washington Highlands is among the most violent neighborhoods in the District of Columbia; approximately one third of the city's 181 homicides in 2007 occurred there. The neighborhood became the focus of media attention in January 2008, when city officials discovered that Washington Highlands resident Banita Jacks had been living for months in her rowhouse with the bodies of her four murdered children in advanced states of decomposition upstairs.
Former neighborhood residents include the late Calvin and Wilhelmina Rolark, (founder of the United Black Fund and Councilwoman), who lived on Foxhall Place, and country singer/entertainer Roy Clark who grew up on First Street.
Woodley Park, District of Columbia:
Woodley Park is a neighborhood in Northwest, Washington, DC. It is bounded on the north by Woodley Road and Klingle Road, on the east by the National Zoo and Rock Creek Park, on the south by Calvert Street, on the southwest by Cleveland Avenue, and on the west by 34th Street.
Adjoining neighborhoods are Cleveland Park to the north, Mount Pleasant and Adams Morgan to the east, Kalorama to the south, Woodland-Normanstone Terrace to the southwest, and Massachusetts Heights to the west.
Woodley Park is served by the Woodley Park-Zoo/Adams Morgan Metro station, between Dupont Circle and Cleveland Park on the Red Line.
Straddling Connecticut Avenue south of the National Zoo is a neighborhood of fine early 20th-century row houses, a throwback to the days more than a century ago when developers hoped that this wide avenue that runs northward to the Maryland border would be a boulevard lined with elegant homes. Modern-day Connecticut Avenue north of the small Woodley Park historic district, however, is now mostly filled with high rent, high rise apartment houses — although the city's height limitation restricts them to no more than eight stories, they are considered high-rise by Washington standards. To the east, the neighborhood's curved streets overhang Rock Creek Park. On the west, they bend on the slope leading to the heights of Mt. Saint Albans, the site of Washington National Cathedral. The stately rows of meticulously designed houses are preserved intact, presenting streetscapes that have changed little for nearly a century. Though busy Connecticut Avenue is always just around the corner, the residential streets are leafy, green and serene.
On Connecticut Avenue, former row houses along the street have been converted into commercial properties, including restaurants, offices and retail shops. Two large hotels are located on Calvert Street (the Omni Shoreham Hotel) and Woodley Road (the Marriott Wardman Park hotel, the largest hotel in D.C.). At night, the place is a hive of activity, particularly since a shuttle bus (The Circulator) now runs between the Metro stop (Woodley Park/Adams Morgan) to the heart of Adams Morgan and the U Street Corridor. Shops and restaurants lining Connecticut Ave include many chains (such as a Baskin-Robbins, a Chipotle, a McDonald's, and a CVS), but also many fine local restaurants and shops.
The Woodley Park Community Association was established to support the in-town neighborhood quality of life in Woodley Park. It has several hundred members and works on issues of general neighborhood interest.
Woodridge-South Central, District of Columbia:
Woodridge, is a residential neighborhood located on the northeastern edge of Washington, D.C., bounded by Eastern Avenue on the east, Michigan Avenue to the north, South Dakota then 18th St. to the west, and Bladensburg Road to the south. Its central commercial strip is Rhode Island Avenue NE. It is located roughly between the neighborhood of Brookland in D.C. and the city of Mount Rainier, Maryland.
District of Columbia Public Schools operates public schools.
District of Columbia Public Library operates the Woodridge Neighborhood Library located at 18th and Rhode Island Ave. N.E.
Bladensburg Road is a main stretch of road that in Woodbrige. Walmart is planning on opening one of four locations in the area.